MacDonald, C.B., & Luckett, J.B. (1983). Religious affiliation and psychiatric diagnoses. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 22, 15-37. (C/S survey of relationship between religious affiliation (33 types) and psychiatric diagnosis in 7,050 persons terminated from a mid-western psychiatric clinic between 1977-1980; "no religious preference" had the highest proportion of alcoholics, the 2nd highest proportion of drug dependence, but the least number of neurotics, and few marital maladajustment and adjustment reactions (and low rates of anxiety and OCD); "non-mainline Protestants" had the most neuroses (higher rates of depression and OCD) and most adjustment reactions, but the least drug dependence and least alcoholism; mainline protestants had the highest marital adjustment problems and relatively low rates of alcoholism, but high rates of hysterical personality disorder; Catholics had less alcoholism and slightly more neuroses (but high rates of OCD); sects had high rates of psychosis) (uncontrolled chi-square associations); of particular note is that 43% of the sample reported "No Religious Preference" (compared with 8% nationally), especially given the mid-western location of the study)
Mackenbach, J.P., Kunst, A.E., Devrij, J.H., & VanMeel, D. (1993). Self-reported morbidity and disability among Trappist and Benedictine monks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 138, 569-573. (case-control study of monks at 7 monasteries in Netherlands, with 134 responses (67%); compared rates of morbidity and disability among monks with all Dutch males by standardized morbidity ratios (SMR), adjusting for age and education; SMR was similar for monks and non-monks (SMR 1.07), but disability by ADL impairment was much higher for 7 of 10 ADLs assessed, after adjustments for age; for trouble sitting down and getting up from chair, SMR was 2.21 (95% CI 1.44-3.32); concluded that a prudent lifestyle may prolong life, but at expense of higher disability)
MacKenzie, G., & Blaney, R. (1985). Further correlates of problem drinking in Northern Ireland from a population study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 14 (3), 410-414. (C/S survey of probability sample of 3,755 community-dwelling adults in Northern Ireland (1783 males, 1972 females); regression analysis found that male drinkers more likely to be Catholic; no discussion of religious finding)
*[MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D.K., Nandarino, J.V., Waziri, R., & Schneider, R.H. (1994). Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four months' practice of transcendental meditation (TM). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 746, 381-384.]
MacLean, D. (1986). Jehovah's Witnesses. Australian Family Physician, 15,772-774.
MacMahon, B., & Koller, E.K. (1957). Ethnic differences in the incidence of leukemia. Blood, 12, 1-10. (examines distribution of ethnic background of 1368 white persons who died of leukemia between 1943-1952 (Brooklyn, NY); compared to persons dying from any cause in Brooklyn over the same years 1943-1952; religious affiliation from cemetary of burial; found that there were more Jews compared with non-Jews dying of acute myelogenous leukemia (2.7:1), chronic myelogenous leukemia (1.9:1), and chronic lymphatic leukemia (2.4:1) (about twice as often as non-Jews)
MacMahon, B. (1960). The ethnic distribution of cancer mortality in New York City, 1955. Acta-Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum, 16, 1716-1724. (examines distribution of deaths from cancer among residents of NYC in 1955 (deaths=14,356 whites); religious affiliation from cemetary of burial; found reduced rates of cancer of the cervix for Jewish women (2.1 and 2.6 times more frequent in Catholics and Protestants), and fewer cancers of the upper respiratory tract (tongue, buccal cavity, pharynx, larynx) in Jews, particularly Jewish males; fewer neoplasms of the esophagus and liver also found among Jews; higher rates in Jews for melanoma and for leukemia and Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancers of the kidney and large intestine; Jews more likely to seek medical care, and perhaps more likely to receive ionizing radiation from x-rays, with regard to leukemia)
Madakasira (1987). Acute post traumatic stress disorder in victims of a natural disaster. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 286-290. (C/S survey of 279 tornado victims five months after a tornado devastated their rural community in eastern North Carolina; a 30 minute structured psychiatric interview assessed Hopkins Symptom Checklist, expanded to include DSM-III criteria for PTSD; only 116 (42%) filled out the HSCL and PTSD questionnaire; 59% of those completing PTSD questionnaire fulfilled criteria for PTSD and 16% had severe PTSD; only one characteristic differentiated severe PTSD subjects from milder forms or no PTSD, level of social support (lower among those with severe PTSD) (nothing on religion)
Madigan, F.C. (1957). Are sex mortality differentials biologically caused? The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 35, 202-223. (age-specific death rates determined for each decade between 1900 and 1950 for Catholic sisters and brothers; compared rates with those of American native white males for brothers and American native white females for sisters; 788 deaths during 130,863 person-years of life for Brothers and 6,144 during 718,435 person-years of life among sisters; since 1920, the Sisters have been living significantly longer and have substantially lower SMR from all causes when compared to white females; these effects are particularly notable at ages 15-44 (1.26, 1.18, 0.97, 0.80, 0.55, 0.44 death ratios for consecutive decades); among these age 45 or over, a survival advantage has been noted throughout 1900-1954 period (weighted ratios 0.71-0.90, average 0.84); among borthers, there has generally been a survival advantage throughout the period 1900-1954 (0.66) and this has been largely centerd in the 15-44 age group (0.61))
Madigan, F.C. (1961). Role satisfactions and length of life in a closed population [Catholic priests]. American Journal of Sociology, 67, 640-649. (examined death rates among a large American subdivision of an order of male Roman Catholic priests (only whites were examined); deaths between 1953 and 1957 examined; 1,247 of 6,235 persons died during this time; standardized death rates of priests ages 15-85 compared to death rates of U.S. whites males were 28.2% lower (880/100,000 vs 1,101/100,000); when compared priests aged 20-74 to married white males of same age, the reduction in mortality was 21.3% (682 vs 812); priests enjoyed their greatest mortality advantage from the fifteenth to 44th year of life, when overall mortality rate was 38% that of the general population)
Maes, H. H., Neale, MC, Martin, NG, Heath, AC, Eaves, L. J. (1999). Religious attendance and frequency of alcohol use: same genes or same environments: a bivariate extended twin kinship model. Twin Research, 2, 169-179. (Investigators examined whether the inverse relationship between religious attendance and alcohol use was driven by genetic or environmental factors. Data on these two variables were attained from twins and their families in the Virginia 30,000 study. A bivariate model of family resemblance was fitted to the data using Mx. Results indicated that genetic factors primarily account for the relationship between alcohol and church attendance in males, while shared environmental factors, including cultural transmission and genotype-environment covariance, are stronger determinants of this association in women.
Magaletta, P.R., Duckro, P.N., & Staten, S.F. (1997). Prayer in office practice: On the theshold of integration. Journal of Family Practice, 44, 254-256. (opinion, discussion: Physicians must pay close attention to patients' varying levels of intimacy and mutual willingness for discussion when addressing these issues and/or acting on them. For example, the patients' wishes must be considered before the physician offers his or her own private prayers. If the physician would prescribe prayer for the patient, then he/she must be cautious this does not increase the patient's sense of guilt or fear of a poor prognosis.)
Magana, A., & Clark, N.M. (1995). Examining a paradox: Does religiosity contribute to positive birth outcomes in Mexican American populations? Health Education Quarterly, 22, 96-109. (literature review and discussion; from the University of Michigan School of Public Health, researchers examined death rates for the 2.5 million MA population in Los Angeles County; this population had the lowest infant mortality (6 deaths/1000) compared with about 11/1000 for whites and 18/1000 for Blacks; however, one-third of MA population in LA is below poverly line, they are less educated than the general population, and 30% have no health insurance; many, however, were found to have a strong religious faith; besides avoiding tobacco and alcohol because of their religious beliefs, many had a strong relationship with the Virgin Mary, whom they said gave them strength and comfort; finally, MA women pray more often for their babies, which may give them more positive attitudes toward their pregnancies)
Magee, J.J. (1987). Determining the predictors of life satisfaction among retired nuns: Report from a pilot project. Journal of Religion and Aging, 4(1), 39-49. C/S survey of a "random" sample of 150 retired nuns aged 71-85 in New York (method of sampling was not given); life satisfaction measured by Life Satisfaction Index-Z scale; 30.7% with high life satisfaction, 50% as moderate LS, and 19% as low LS; multiple regression used to identify predictors of life satisfaction; holding an administrative or governance position in one's congregation before retiring (the only religious variable measured) was significantly related to LS (p<.05) when list-wise regression used, but this association disappeared when step-wise regression used)
Magilvy, J. K., Brown, N. J. (1997). Parish nursing: advancing practice nursing. Model for healthier communities. Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, 2 (4), 67-72.
Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I, Jewell, T., Swank, A. B., Scott, E., Emery, E., Rye, M. (1999). Marriage and the spiritual realm: the role of proximal and distal religious constructs in marital functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 321-328. (97 couples completed questionnaires about their joint religious activities and perceptions regarding the sanctification of marriage, such as perceived sacred qualities of marriage and beliefs about the manifestation of God in marriage (proximal religious constructs). Individual religiousness and religious homogamy (distal religious constructs) did not predict marital outcomes as strongly as proximal religious constructs. Proximal religious variables were associated with greater global marital adjustment, perceived benefits from marriage, less marital conflict, more verbal collaboration, and less use of verbal aggression and stalemate to discuss disagreements. Proc small measures added substantial unique variance (R-square change) ranging from .06 to .48 after controlling for demographic factors and distal religious variables.
Mahoney, E.R. (1980). Religiosity and sexual bahavior among heterosexual college students. Journal of Sex Research, 16, 97-113. (C/S survey of 441 introductory sociology students at Western Washington University, Washington state (66% female, primarily freshman and sophomores); intensity of religious belief measured by a single item, a 21-point scale ranging from 0-20 (not at all intense to very intense); only 7 of 20 sexual behaviors were not related to religiosity among men, whereas only 7 of 20 sexual behaviors were significantly related to religiosity among women; sexual intercourse was more commonly experienced by those with low religiousness vs high religiousness for both men and women (92% vs 79%, p<.001, and 45% vs 79%, p<.001), and religiousness was inversely related to number of sexual partners (-.21 for men and -.13 for women, both p<.05), frequency of light and heavy petting (-.19 for men and -.17 for women, and -.23 for men and -.17 for women), sexual experiences (-.38), thinking about sex (-.25), sexual enjoyment (-.15 for men, p<.05), sexual responsiveness (-.14 for men, p<.05), and ideal frequency of sex per month (-.19, p<.05 for men); for those who had experienced sexual intercourse, religiosity was positively related to sequential orgasms (.15 for men, p<.05), self-initiated sex (.20, p<.05), and initiating sexual activity (.23, p<.05); among females, sexual intercourse was more commonly experienced by those with low than high religiousness (79% vs 45%), and religiousness was inversely related to number of sex partners (-.13), frequency of petting (-.17), sexual experiences (-.25), thinking about sex (-.12), and ideal frequency of sex (-.24) (no control variables); concluded that religiosity negatively correlated with premarital sexual intercourse)
Malak, J. (1998). Jehovah's Witnesses and medicine: an overview of beliefs and issues in their care. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia, 87, 322-327.
Mallory, M. (1977). Christian Mysticism: Transcending Techniques. Amsterdam: Van Gorcum Assen (don't have it) (44 nuns and 9 friars from a Carmelite order whose primary activity is contemplative prayer; mysticism scores correlated positively with extraversion (r=0.23) and happiness (r=0.41); prayers associated with rational processes, however, were significantly correlated with mental distress); in a subsample of 14 enlisted for EEG recordings during prayer, a significant reduction in alpha abundance during prayer was found (p<.04), although this study was criticized for her use of statistical techniques)
Maltby, J. (1997). Personality correlates of religiosity among adults in the Republic of Ireland. Psychological Reports, 81 (3, Part 1), 827-831.
Malzberg, B. (1973). Mental disease among Jews in New York state, 1960-1961. Acta Psychiatry Scandinavica, 49, 479-518. (largest U.S. Jewish population is found in New York State; compares incidence of mental disease among Jews and white non-Jews in NY State; based on 1st admissions to all mental hospitals in NY State during 1959-1961 (5,514 Jewish and 34,707 non-Jewish white first admissions); involutional depression and manic depressive illness made up more of the total proportion of cases among Jews than among non-Jews (12.1% and 5.8% vs 7.5% and 2.5%, respectively for native born) (18.6% and 3.9% vs 10.0% and 1.6%, respectively for foreign born); concluded that Jews had higher incidence of involutional psychoses and manic-depressive illness than non-Jews)
Mandell, AJ (1980). Toward a psychobiology of transcendence: God in the brain. In Davidson, JM, & Davidson, R. J. (editors), The Psychobiology of Consciousness. New York: Plenum Press
*[Mandle (1984)........] (religious people commit suicide less often than non-religious)
Manfredi, C., & Pickett, M. (1987). Perceived stressful situations and coping strategies utilized by the elderly. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 4, 99-110. (C/S survey of a convenience sample of 51 persons aged 60 or over in Rhode Island (senior citizen housing complex); the 66-item Ways of Coping Checklist, after identifying a stressful event he/she experienced in past month; prayer was the most frequently used strategy to cope in a field of 66 coping strategies)
Mansfield, C., Mitchell, J., King, D. E. (1997). The doctor as God's mechanic? Beliefs of a southeastern role population. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, November 14, 1997, Orlando, Florida. (Reliance on religion and spirituality as a coping mechanism among the elderly is supported by this epidemiological survey--Mansfield and colleagues documented an increased reliance on prayer and religious faith among patients who perceived a decline in their health status)
Manusov, E.G., Carr. R.J., Rowane, M., Beatty, L.A., & Nadeau, M.T. (1995). Dimensions of happiness: A qualitative study of family practice residents. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 8, 367-375. (Q) (religion or religious commitment was mentioned by many of the 59 residents (years 1-3) as a contributor to their happiness and well-being in four different sites (Cleveland, Washington DC, Charlotte, NC, Bethesda)
Maranell, G.M. (1974). Religiosity and personality adjustment. In Responses to Religion. Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas (109 students; examined 8 measures of different types of religiousness; two dimensions were consistently related to mental pathology (superstition and ritualism); measures of church orientation, altruism, fundamentalism, theism, idealism, and mysticism were unrelated; he concluded that religious persons are likely to be less well-adjusted than non-religious persons, although data do not support that conclusions, since if multiple comparisons are taken into consideration, there were no significant findings - reported in Bergin 1983, p 180)
Marcus, P., & Rosenberg, A. (1995). The value of rleigion in sustaining the self in extreme situations. Psychoanalytic Review, 82, 81-105. (Kohut has noted that Freud "ignored the supportive aspects of religion. Religion consitutes a set of cultural values which he totally underestimated (Kohut, 1985, p 261)"; these authors examine the behavior of believing and practicing "traditional" Jewish inmates in Nazi concentration and death camps; self psychology is used to understand the religious experience in these extreme situations)
Marcus, S.C., Olfson, M., Pincus, H.A., Shear, M.K., & Zarin, D.A. (1997). Self-reported anxiety, general medical conditions, and disability bed days. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154:1766-1768. (C/S survey of national probability sample of households (n=20,884) examined effect of self-reported anxiety on disability days; found that those with a general medical condition, persons with self-reported anxiety had four times greater length of disability than nonanxious respondents (18.0 vs 4.8 bed days); after adjustment for demographics and buren of general medical illness, anxiety was associated with an additional 3.8 bed days)
Markides, K.S. (1983). Aging, religiosity, and adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 621-625. (4-year prospective cohort study of 338 of a probability sample of 510 Mexican-Americans and Anglos (30%) initially surveyed in 1976 and followed up in 1980 (San Antonio); church attendance (1-6), self-rated religiosity (1-4), and private prayer (1-5) were assessed; life satisfaction measured by 13-item LSI of Neugarten; over the 4 years church attendance showed a small but significant decline, self-rated religiosity showed a small but significant increase, and private prayer remained unchanged; T1 church attendance was correlated with T1 life satisfaction (beta .51, p<.05, after controlling for sex, age, marital status, education) among Mexican Americans and Anglos (beta .52, p<.05); T1 self-rated religiosity and private prayer were correlated with greater LS at T1 for Anglos only (beta 1.85, p<.05, and 1.58, p<.05, respectively); T2 attendance and private prayer was correlated with T2 life satisfaction (beta .39, p<.05, and beta .93, p<.05, respectively) in Mexican Americans; in Anglos, only church attendance was associated LS (beta .98, p<.05))
Markides, K.S., Levin, J.S., & Ray, L.A. (1987). Religion, aging, and life satisfaction: an eight-year, three-wave longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 27, 660-665. (8-year prospective cohort study of 511 Mexican-Americans and Anglos age 60 or over interviewed at 3 time points during this period (aim is to see if religious variables become stronger predictors of life satisfaction with aging); cross-sectional analyses using multiple regression conducted in 1976 (T1), 1980 (T2), and 1984 (T3); there were 230 respondents who participated in all three Waves; frequency of private prayer (single item), self-rated religiosity (single item), and church attendance (single item); regression results indicated the following std beta for CA on LS: 1976, beta=.03 (ns) for 230 and .09 for 511, p<.05; 1980, .13 (ns) for 230 and .15, p<.01 for 338; 1984, .06 (ns) for 230 and .08 (ns) for 254; for self-rated religiosity on LS: 1976, .05 (ns) for 230 and .10, p<.05 for 511; 1980, .03 (ns) for 230 and .08 (ns) for 338; 1984, .09 (ns) for 230 and .07 (ns) for 254; for private prayer: 1976, .04 (ns) for 230 and .07 (ns) for 511; 1980, .14, p<.05 for 230 and .13, p<.05) for 338; 1984, -.04 (ns) for 230 and -.04 (ns) for 254; among dropouts, means on life satisfaction, religious attendance, and functional health were all much lower than among participants; concluded that the associations (particularly with church attendance) lose their significance because dropouts (many who drop out due to death or serious illness) are less frequent attenders who report lower levels of functional health and life satisfaction)
Marks, P., & Haller, D. (1977). Now I lay me down for keeps: a study of adolescent suicide. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 390-400.
Marks, R.U. (1967). Socioenvironmental stress and cardiovascular disease: A review of empirical findings. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 45, 51-108. (review)
Martin, A.O., Dunn, J.K., Simpson, J.L., Olsen, C.L., & Kemel, S., Grace, M., Elias, S., Sarto, G.E., Smalley, B., & Steinberg, A.G. (1980). Cancer mortality in a human isolate. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 65, 1109-1113. (identified cases of cancer among Hutterites in Alberta, Manitoba, South Dakota, and Wahsington state, including cancer registries and bureau of vital statistics between 1965 and 1975; total population size of Hutterites in Manitoba, South Dakota, and Alberta was 12,652; there were 29 cancer deaths in males and 23 in females, which were fewer deaths than expected (p<.01), compared to U.S. white population, largely due to lower mortality from lung cancer ( 1 death vs. 13 expected, p<.05); higher rates of cancer were found for leukemias, stomach, uterine, prostate, and rectal cancers; only 1 woman in the entire Hutterite population had cervical cancer and she did not die during study period; concluded that Hutterites are, in general, at low risk for developing cancer)
Martin, C., & Nichols, R.C. (1962). Personality and religious belief. Journal of Social Psychology, 56, 3-8. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 163 undergraduate college students (104 females); 41-item religious belief scale and 54-item religious information scales were developed by authors from existing instruments; also examined church attendance and membership, parental religious beliefs and atittudes; outcome was MMPI Pa scale (paranoia), L scale (lie), and MF scale (interest), and the California F scale (authoritarianism); correlations looked at for entire group and for 50 highest and 50 lowest on religious information (about Bible and other religious issues); religious belief scores inversely related to paranoia (-.12, p=ns), unrelated to Lie scale (.02, p=ns), positively related to MF (interest) scale (.16, p=ns) in males and unrelated in females (.00, p=ns), and significantly related to California F scale (.18, p<.05), and was unrelated to religious information measure, either Bible, other, or total; among those with high religious information, MF was inversely related (-.39, p<.05) and F scale was unrelated to religious belief; among low information, PA was inversely related to religious belief (-.31, p<.05) and F scale was significantly related (.31, p<.05) (no other variables controlled); also, they summarize a dozen studies in the 1950's that show a negative picture of the religious believer)
Martin, D., & Wrightsman, L.S. (1965). The relationship between religious behavior and concern about death. Journal of Social Psychology, 65, 317-323. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 58 adult members of three churches in middle Tennessee (33 Church of Christ, 13 Methodist, 12 Christian Church; few subjects had attended college, age range 18-75, mean 44; given Religious Participation Scale (unpublished) asking degree of extent of church attendance, personal prayer, reading of religious material, Sunday school attendance, and ratings of the intensity of their religious convictions compared to others; Broen's Religious Attitude Inventory; Sarnoff & Corwin's Feath of Death Scale and a 10-item extension of that scale; religious participation was inversely related to both fear of death scales (-.27, p<.05, and -.42, p<.05); religious attitudes (Broen's Factor I "nearness of God" and Factor II "fundamentalism vs. humanism"), however, were unrelated to death concerns on either death anxiety scales) (no controls)
Martin et al. Psychological Reports, 66, 123-128 (no religion)
Martin, W.T. (1984). Religiosity and United States suicide rates, 1972-1978. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 1166-1169. (case-control study of suicide rates and church attendance; suicide rates per 100,000 obtained for white males, white females, black males, and black females for 1972-1978 from U.S. DHHS; religious involvement was based on GSS by NORC; church attendance measured on a 0-8 scale; correlated suicide rates in four subpopulations above with their mean church attendance rates based on GSS data; results indicated a negative correlation (r(14)=-.85, p<.0001); concluded that results of this study provide support for the idea that religiosity deters suicide)
Martin-Baro, I. (1990). Religion as an instrument of psychological warfare. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 93-107. (reviews a series of small studies in El Salvador in the 1980's (based on participant observation and all studies with 100 subjects) that show almost all Catholic base communities tend to assume active and critical posutres toward the social order, while a significant portion of the evangelical and Catholic charismatics tend to adopt individualistic attitudes favoring passive submission to the social order (left in the "hands of God") (Jerry Falwell's moral majority and Pat Robertson's CBN don't appear to be doing this!)
Martinez, F.I. (1991). Therapist-client convergence and similarity of religious values: Their effect on client improvement. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 10, 137-143. (prospective cohort study of 30 subjects receiving counseling at a university counseling center in midwestern US; outcome measured by global improvement scale rated by patient and therapist (correlated .59); results indicated that if the client was more religious than the therapist, he/she was less likely to benefit from therapy than if patient were less religious than the therapist; patients also showed greater improvement if the therapist was more theologically conservative than the patient's orientation; furthermore, the therapist is more likely to rate the patient as having improved if their religious values become more like that of the therapist -- underscoring the effects that religious values have on therapy)
Marty, M. E. (1982). Health/Medicine and the Faith Traditions: an Inquiry into Religion and Medicine. Philadelphia: Fortress Press
Marx, J.H., & Spray, S.L. (1969). Religious biographies and professional characteristics of psychotherapists. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 10, 275-288. (C/S survey of 1,371 psychiatrists, 1,465 clinical psychologists, and 1,154 psychiatric social workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York about religious affiliation (total 3790); found that 21.3% were Protestant, 9.5% Catholic, 33.6% Jewish, 14.6% none, 10.6% agnostic, and 10.4% atheists; Jews and unbelievers are markedly over-represented in the mental health professions; psychologists less religiously involved than most people, and therefore underestimate the signifiance of religion in people's lives)
Massion, A.O., Teas, J., Hebert, J.R., Wertheimer, M.D., Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Meditation, melatonin and breast/prostate cancer: Hypothesis and preliminary data. Medical Hypothesis, 44, 39-46. (compared urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels in 8 women who were experienced meditators (graduates or teaches in University of Massachusetts Stress Reduction and Relaxation Program), and 8 women who do not meditate; after controlling for the non-sigificant effect of menstrual period interval, found an effect for meditation group (b=1.98, p=.02) (higher levels of urinary 6-SM); nothing on prostate/breast cancer, simply quotes two studies linking melatonin to the treatment of these disorders)
Masters, K.S., Bergin, A.E., Reynolds, E.M., & Sullivan, C.E. (1991). Religious life-styles and mental health: A follow-up study. Counseling & Values 35, 211-224. (don't have it) (3-year prospective study of 60 Mormon undergraduates; persons classified as manifesting a continuous religious development vs. discontinuous development; assessed with MMPI and Religious Orientation Inventory; over time, groups tended to regress toward the mean and become more similar over time; the "continous group" appeared slightly more conforming, conventional, and self-controlled; both groups improved on mental functioning, as well as on intrinsic religiosity over time)
Mathew, R.J. (1995). Measurement of materialism and spiritualism in substance abuse research. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 470-475. (Mathew Materialism-Spiritualism Scale developed in India, but now being tested in Durham, NC for use in U.S.; six subscales: I - (God) belief in God or a power that guides the universe, II - (Religion) examines faith in the value of religion and religious practices, III - (Mysticism) evaluates belief in the genuineness of mystic or transcendental experiences, IV - (Spirits) studies belief in the existence of spirits and survival of the soul after death, V - (Character) examines belief in the personal value to the individual of altruism, unselfishness, kindness, morality, etc., and VI - (Psi) relates to belief in the genuineness of paranormal phenomena such as extrasensory perception and telepathy; 62 members recovering from substance abuse (most in 12-step AA and NA programs) scored significantly higher on character and mysticism than 61 general controls (although controls younger than cases, and 12-step involved cases may have exaggerated their spiritual gains or those with greater spirituality may have chosen 12-step groups); MAST positive controls had significantly lower scores than recoverying group for God, mysticism, and character; Christians had higher scores on God and religion subscales than did nonChristians and agnostics)
Mathew, R.J., Georgi, J., Wilson, W.H., & Mathew, V.G. (1996). A retrospective study of the concept of spirituality as understood by recovering individuals. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13, 67-73. (case-control C/S study of 62 persons (from AA, NA, and general public in Durham, NC) with history of drug/alcohol abuse abstinent for 6 months or more (52% male, mean age 43); compared with a control group (n=61) (54% male, mean age 33) of persons with no history of drug/alcohol or psychiatric problems; asked to complete Mathew Materialism Spiritualism Scale as (a) they would respond now and (b) as they would have responded during time when abusing drugs/alcohol; all six MMSS subscales showed increase from pre-abuse to post-abuse among cases; among controls, pre-recovery MMSS scores were higher than in cases; comparing post-recovery scores of controls and cases, only Mysticism subscale was higher among cases)
Maton, K.I. (1987). Patterns and psychological correlates of material support within a religious setting: The bidirectional support hypothesis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 185-208. (prospective cohort study of 103 members of a nondenominational Christian Fellowship (about 50% of all members) in a midwestern city (mean age 28, 50% female, 60% married, 40% with children); used a 7-day activity log completed every 4 weeks to assess material support, including both providing and receiving support; study lasted for 36 weeks; bi-directional supporters experienced the greatest life satisfaction (using a Withey & Andrews 1976 scale) and more favorable support attitudes than either strict Providers or strict Receivers; the latter groups did not significantly differ in terms of life satisfaction or support attitudes; findings support the "balance theory" perspective on social support; unidirectional involvement in support incurs psychological costs (burnout, overexpenditure of effort) which may offset psychological benefits; likewise, unidirectional receivers may experience equal psychological costs (feelings of inferiority, lack of self-sufficiency, awkwardness, and obligation))
Maton, K.I. (1989a). The stress-buffering role of spiritual support: cross-sectional and prospective investigations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 310-323. (C/S survey in Part I; prospective cohort study for Part II; 81 members of bereaved parents group (mean age 46, 77% women) divided into high and low stress groups (Part I); 68 high school seniors divided into high and low stress completed were surveyed twice, 5 months apart (Part II); in Part I, depression assessed with Hopkins Symptom Checklist and self-esteem with an adapted version of Rosenberg's scale; spiritual support assessed with 3-item scale asessing emotional, intimacy, and faith aspects of spiritual (religious) support; high life stress was defined by death of child within past 2 years (n=33) and low stress if death > 2 years (n=48); in Part II, college adjustment assessed with Personal-Emotional Adjustment scale and Social Adjustment scale during the first semester (Time 2); spiritual support assessed assessed at Time 1 (5 months earlier) with similar 3-item index used in Part I and church attendance was measured using a single item measure; social support was assessed with two standardized scales (diferent from Part I); pre-college depression was assessed as a baseline control with 7-item Brief Symptom Inventory; stress scale assessed 22 major life events and subjects divided into high and low life-stress samples based on scores above and below median on stress scale; in Part I, spiritual support inversely related to depression (-.23, p<.05) but not SE; effect was larger in high stress group (-.33, p<.05, for depression, and 0.42 with self-esteem, p<.01); for low-stress group, spiritual support unrelated to depression or self-esteem; in Part II, spiritual support was unrelated to emotional adjustment; for the high stress group, however, there was a relationship (p<.05); church attendance was unrelated; findings persisted after controlling for other variables -- demographics, social support, and other variables using regression)
[Maton, K.I. (1989b). Community settings as buffers of life stress? Highly supportive churches, mutual help groups, and senior centers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 203-232.] (162 church members, mean age 31, surveyed on economic stress; membership in high or low support church, based on material support transactions in church; outcome life satisfaction; results ??)
Maton, K.I., & Wells, E.A. (1995). Religion as a community resource for well-being: prevention, healing, and empowerment pathways. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 177-193.(excellent review)(churches 37% volunteer activity, $6.1 billion to community causes) This review examines the potential of religion as a community resource for well-being in primary prevention, healing, and group empowerment.
Matthews, D. A., McCullough, ME, Larson, DB, Koenig H. G., Swyers, J.P., Minalo, MG. (1998). Religious commitment and health status: A review of the research and implications for family medicine. Archives of Family Medicine, 7,118-124.
Matthews, DA, Marlowe, S.M., & MacNutt, F.S. (1999). Effects of intercessory prayer ministry on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Abstract published in Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13(4: suppl 1):17. Randomized clinical trial designed to examine the effects of intercessory prayer ministry (IPM) as an adjunct to standard medical care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Forty patients (82 percent female, all-white, mean age 62) who had moderately active rheumatoid arthritis were given a three-day IPM intervention that included six hours of instruction and six hours of direct-contact prayer (" laying-on-of-hands"). Half of the group was also randomized to receive intercessory prayer at a distance for six months. Subjects were assessed at three and 12 months post intervention. Patients demonstrated significant overall improvement (p<.0001), with sustained reductions in tender and swollen joints (17 and 10 vs. 6 and 3 at 12 months) (p<.001), self-reported pain (p<.004), fatigue (p=.007), and functional impairment (121 vs 108, p=.007). *Number of tender joints less in prayed for group (compared at 6 months to waitlist controls, p=.016). No effect for distant intercessory prayer.
Mattlin, J.A., Wethington, E., & Kessler, R.C. (1990). Situational determinants of coping and coping effectiveness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 103-122. (C/S survey of 1,556 adults in Detroit multistage cluster sampling design) (including only non-black married couples (n=977) in which at least one spouse was 18-65 yo); were asked how they coped with the most stressful event or situation in their lives over the past year; 55% indicated that religion was used between "some" and "a lot" for dealing with stressor; religious coping more often used when dealing with illness and death, rather than when dealing with practical or interpersonal problems)
Maugans, T.A., & Wadland, W.C. (1991). Religion and family medicine: A survey of physicians and patients. Journal of Family Practice, 32, 210-213. (C/S survey of 115 (of 146) members of Vermont Academy of Family Physicians, and 135 patients (of 150) from 3 outpatient FP practices in Vermont; among physicians, 33% Protestant, 22% Catholic, 8% Jewish, 28% none; among patients, 37% Protestant, 50% Catholic, 1% Jewish, and 9% none; patients more likely than physicians to believe in God (91% vs. 64%, p<.01), an afterlife (60% vs 45%, p=02), to use prayer (85% vs 60%, p<.01), and to feel close to God (74% vs. 43%, p<.01); physicians more likely to believe that the physician has the right (89% vs. 52%, p<.01) and responsibility (52% vs. 21%, p<.01) to inquire about religious factors; 77% of physicians at least occasionally address religious issues with patients; most common situation where physician addressed religious matters were: counsling for terminal illness (69%), impending death (68%), death (60%), birth (48%), major surgery (47%), and major illness (36%); 40% of patients believed that physicians should discuss pertinent religious issues; most patients did not recall physicians addressing religion)
Maugans, T.A. (1996). The SPIRITual history. Archives of Family Medicine, 5, 11-16. (Q) (describes method of taking a medically-oriented Spiritual History, with case examples)
Mauss, A.L. (1959). Anticipatory socialization toward college as a factor in adolescent marijuana use. Social Problems, 16, 357-364. (C/S survey of seniors at a subpurban public high schoold and two urban parochial high schools in East Bay area of California; 459 12th graders were surveyed; marijuana use was particularly high among those without religious affiliation, particularly if they anticipated going to college (Catholics/Protestants 6% of low anticipators and 10% of high anticipators, vs. 25% of non-affiliates who were low anticipators and 50% of high anticipators)
Mayberry, J.F. (1982). Epidemiological studies of gastrointestinal cancer in Christian sects. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 4, 115-121 (R)
Mayer, J., Merril, A., & Myerson, D.J. (1965). Contact and initial attendance at an alcoholism clinic. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 26, 480-485. (193 patients contacted the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital Alcoholism clinic and accepted intake appointments; 62% kept appointment and 38% did not; examined characteristics of persons who did not show up for their appointments; none of 11 characteristics of patients collected during the initial contact predicted who would show up for appointment (including religious affiliation) (Ca, Prot, Jew)
Mayo, C.C., Puryear, H.B., & Richek, H.G. (1969). MMPI correlates of religiousness in late adolescent college students. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 149, 381-385. (C/S survey of sample of convenience; MMPI administered to 166 college students at small denominational university in Texas; religious variables included whether person considered self "religious" or "non-religious" and and whether person was a church member; defined religious person as responding positively to both questions above; found that religious male students were different from non-religious male students by their absence of schizophrenic, depressive, and psychopathic deviate attributes; religious females had lower ego strength than non-religious females) (no control variables)
McAllister, R.J., & Vanderveldt, A. (1961). Factors in mental illness among hospitalized clergy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 132, 80-88. (examines the characteristics of clergy with mental illness (n=100) and compares them to non-clergy (n=100); worse outcomes observed (Seton Psychiatric Institute in Baltimore); duration of mental hospitalization was much longer for clergy compared with lay persons, p<.01; fewer clergy were improved at discharge (p<.01); clergy less likely to have a change of duty after discharge or be transfered to another hospital, rather than resume their occupation (p<.01); clergy more likely to have diagnoses of alcohol or anxiety disorder, compared with lay persons; and clergy more likely to have personality disorder compared with lay persons (p<.01) (note that clergy also more likely to have chronic illness, with onset of symptoms prior to age 32, p<.01, and more likely to have family members with psychiatric illness, p<.01); (no controls)
McAllister, R.J., & Vander Veldt, A.J. (1965). Psychiatric illness in hospitalized Catholic religious. American Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 881-884. (case-control study using an expanded sample from the study reported in 1961; consecutive discharges from a private psychiatric hospital: 200 Catholic religious psychiatric inpatients (100 priests and 100 nuns) compared with 200 lay patients (100 men and 100 women) and 200 non-ill Catholic religious (100 seminarians and 100 sisters without psychiatric illness); shotty, retrospective methodology; "proves" all the sterotypes affiliated with the religious; religious patients more likely to be hospitalized for misuse of alcohol or drugs or sexual "acting out"; alcoholism was predominant delinquency among clergy, acounting for 32 admissions; religious patients outnumbered lay patients 11 to 3 in admission for OCD symptoms; lay person more likely to have symptoms of depression than clergy (84 lay vs 34 clergy); 63% of religious vs 39% of lay patients were from lower SES level; 86% of clergy came from homes where parents exhibited definite psychiatric symptoms, 60% being alcoholism; 80 of lay patients vs 32 clergy were discharged within one month of hospitalization; 67 clergy vs 14 lay patients stayed over 6 months (explained this by fact that since their Superior was paying the bill, expense did not serve as motivation towards early discharge; religious patients outnumber lay patients 2:1 in personality disorders) (major defects in this study; may have been monetary motivations by hospital staff to keep these patients for long periods, given unlimited financial reimbursement; also, secular psychiatrists may have been more likely to make personality disorder diagnoses in these patients; finally, clergy clearly had more chronic symptoms (even though 50% of both clergy and lay patients had histories of prior psychiatric treatment) and came from more disrupted homes)
McAllister, R.J. (1969). The mental health of members of religious communities. International Psychiatric Clinics, 211-222. (R)
McBride, JL, Arthur, G., Brooks, R.,Pilkington, L. (1998). The relationship between eight patients spirituality and health experiences. Family Medicine, 30 (2),122-126. (Stratified, random sample of 422 patients from a suburban family practice residency clinic; used INSPIRIT to assess spirituality, Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperation Information Project (Coop) charts used to measure overall health and pain level; results indicated that overall better health was significantly related to greater spirituality (r=-.18, p<.001) (with spirituality measured as a continuous variable); less physical pain also tended to be related to greater spirituality (r=-.09, p=.08) (uncontrolled). When spirituality broken down to high, moderate, and low, moderate spirituality was associated with significantly lower pain that low spirituality (p=.008), although high spirituality was associated with nonsignificantly greater pain (curvilinear relationship).
McCarthy J. (1979). Religious commitment, affiliation, and marriage dissolution. In Wuthnow R (ed.), The Religious Dimension: New Directions in Quantitative Research, pp. 179-197.
McClelland, D.C. (1988). The effect of motivational arousal through films on salivary immunoglobulin A. Psychology and Health 2, 31-52. (experimental study; 132 college students were shown films of World War II Triumph of the Axis (n=62) and of Mother Teresa (n=70) (two showings each using separate samples); salivary IgA levels significantly increased (p<.025) in the 70 persons who viewed the Mother Teresa film) (results replicated in two samples (n=39 and n=31); increases were greatest among those with relaxed affiliative syndrome) (immune function)
McClure, R.F., & Loden, M. (1982). Religious activity, denomination membership and life satisfaction. Psychological Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 19, 12-17.] (C/S survey in mid-sized Southwestern city; convenience sample of 233 adults were solicited from participants involved in church activities (33 Catholic, 13 Jewish, 73 Baptist, 42 Mormon samples) and a control sample of 66 college students and 6 atheists (Texas); depression scale on MMPI was measure of life-satisfaction/happiness; the more time spent on religious activities, the higher the life-satisfaction/happiness (p<.001); the more religious responsibilities a person had, the greater their life satsifaction and happiness with religious associations (p<.0001) (associations uncontrolled)
McCrae, R.R., & Cost, P.T. (1986). Personality, coping and coping effectiveness in an adult sample. Journal of Personality, 54, 385-405 (CS survey of samples of 255 participants in BLSA who had reported recent negative life event, and 151 not reporting recent negative event; reported that "faith" was rated as the single most effective coping strategy (out of 27 strategies) in dealing with loss events in both samples; however, "faith"postively related to neuroticism in Study 2 (non-stressed) (r=.17, p<.05) and inversely related to openness to experience in both studies (r=-.19, p<.01) and r=-.30, p<.001); no controls.
McCullagh, E.P., & Lewis, L.A. (1960). A study of diet, blood lipis and vascular disease in trappist monks. New England Journal of Medicine, 263, 569-573. (while monks had lower serum cholesterols due to avoidance of animal fat, they were not protected from either atherosclerotic vascular disease or hypertension; in fact, the data suggested that arterial hypertension was more frequent in them than in other men of the same age in the American population; concluded that diets low in animal fat and low serum cholesterol levels are not by themselves sufficient to offset the advance of CAD and HTN)
McCullough, M.E. (1995). Prayer and health: Conceptual issues, research review, and research agenda. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 23, 15-29. (nice review of correlates of prayer and examination of prayer studies)
McCullough, M.E., Larson, D.B., Hoyt, W.T., Koenig, H.G., Thoresen, C., & Milano, M.G. (1998). A meta-analytic review of research on the prospective association of religious involvement and mortality. JAMA, in submission. (reports a negative relationship between religious involvment and mortality, with a mean effect size of 0.72-0.76 (after controlling for other factors), indicating that religious people are less likely to die during follow-up than less religious people; effects are strongest for public religious involvement or church attendance (0.72) than private (0.86); effects are stronger in community (0.74) than in clinical samples (0.88); effects are stronger in studies that examine healthier populations over longer periods of time than in severely ill patients or those with cancer)
McCullough, M.E., Larson, D.B. (1999). Prayer. In W. R. Miller (editor), Integrating Spirituality in Treatment: Resource for Practitioners. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association
McCullough M, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Lerner R. The mismeasurement of religion in mortality research. Mortality, in press (reviews existing research on mortality among members of specific religious faiths in comparison to the general population and examined the methods used to ascertain and categorize religious affiliation in mortality research. Mortality researchers only rarely examine religious affiliation. When they have done so they tend to use religious categorizations that inadequately capture religious diversity and too frequently ascertain religious affiliation by cemetery of burial or funeral home)
McDowell, D., Galanter, M., Goldfarb, L., & Lifshutz, H. (1996). Spirituality and the treatment of the dually diagnosed: an investigation of patient and staff attitudes. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 15(2), 55-68. (C/S survey of 101 consecutive admissions to chemical dependency unit of hospital (mean age 37, 77% men, 46% Black and 29% Hispanic, 42% Catholic and 42% Protestant, 23% homeless; 31 nurses also surveyed (74% women, mean age 35, 32% Asian, 52% Catholic and 19% Hindu); God and Life Scale (Feigan 1964) used to assess spiritual interests (11-items tapping extrinic and intrinsic religiosity/spirituality) and 3 Gallup items (comfort from religion, attendance, and belief in God); patients asked to assess the value of 11 factors in recovery from addiction: AA, outpt prorams, medical services, comunity, spirituality, inner peace, beleif in God, trusting, a job, housing, benefits (rank-ordered in importance); nurses given similar questionnaire but asked to guess patients' responses; nurses not significantly different on religious belief or activity; however, were very different in rating value of factors in recovery: patient's rated belief in God, AA meetings, and strong sense of spirituality significantly higher than nurses predicted they would (all p<.05); nurses also underestimated that patients' interest in having more spiritual groups, p<.05))
McEwen, B.S., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 2093-2101. (excellent review of diseases associated with stress, including asthma, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, myocardial infarction, cancer, viral infections, and autoimmunity; discusses mechanisms, including neurochemistry (serotonin), and immune system (natural killer cell activity and cancer) (nice figures also) (immune)
McEwen, B.S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171-179. (superb review - use in Chapters on stress and cardiovascular and neoplastic and immune systems) (but especially chapters on developing models and mechanisms)
McGloshen, T.H., & O'Bryant, S.L. (1988). The psychological well-being of older, recent widows. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 99-116. (C/S survey of 226 recently widowed women (7-21 months prior to interview) ages 60-89, all white, all incomes <$15,000/yr, residing in Midwest, all living along in their homes since husband's death; Bradburn's 20-item Affect Balance Scale was the outcome varibles; 19 variables accounted for 22% of variance in positive affect and 18% of negative affect; frequency of church attendance was related to greater positive affect (.19, p<.01); religious attendance and health were the strongest predictors of positive affect (psychological well-being) in this sample (both beta=.19); attendance was unrelated to negative affect)
McIntosh, D.N., Silver, R.C., & Wortman, C.B. (1993). Religion's role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 812-821. Parents (n=124) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants from Michigan and Illinois were interviewed at 3 weeks and 18 months post-loss. Using self-reported Likert scales of 1 to 5, well-being and psychological distress were measured to test their correlations with religious participation and religious importance (also measured by self-report scales of 1 to 5). Interviews were conducted at 3 weeks and 18 months post-loss. A comparative-fit model was created with the resulting data. Importance of religion related to greater well-being at 3 weeks (0.18, p<.05), but not at 18 months; church attendance related to greater well-being at 3 weeks (.18, p<.05), but not at 18 months. This study supports that these 2 religious variables are directly related to coping-process variables following a traumatic life event.
McIntosh, D., & Spilka, B. (1990). Religion and physical health: The role of personal faith and control beliefs. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 2, 167-194.] (C/S survey of 69 undergraduate students in Colorado and Georgia and 7 adult members of a Protestant church in Denver, CO (all were volunteers who identified dthemselves as Christian and moderately interested in religion) (mean age 23); intrinsic religiosity (IR - Allport & Ross) was correlated with a 6-item "meaning derived from religion" scale (r=.84) and prayer activity (.59), and mutually active collaborative control with God (.71), but was inversely related to internal control, chance control and control by others (p<.05); health habits evaluated by 17 yes-no items from a standard medical evaluation form; alcohol use was negatively associated with God control; exercise was inversely related to IR; IR was negatively related to overall sickness score (-.26, p<.05) (57-item symptom checklist indicating number of days each problem experienced in previous month, divided into four subscales), negatively related to alcohol intake and smoking, but positively related to regular bowel movements; IR negatively related to somatic factor, digestive symptoms, mild nausea, vomitting, runny nose, dizziness, chest pain, shortness of breath, mononucleosis, fatigue, bladder infection, asthma attack, twitching, and ulcer; no control variables and literally hundreds of comparisons with only 69 subjects)
McIntosh, B., andDanigelis, N.L. (1995). Race, gender, and the relevance of productive activity for elders' affect. Journal of Gerontology, 50 B, S229-S239. (C/S survey of random sample of 1,644 community dwelling adults in the United States aged 60 or older; part of Americans' Changing Lives survey; religious variable was formal volunteering in religious organizations (compared to formal volunteering in non-religious organizations); dependent variable was positive affect and negative affect; found that formal religious participation decreased negative effect in the sample as a whole (beta=-.10, p<.05), but particularly in blacks as a group, especially black women (beta=-.25, both p<.05); religious participation was also positively related to positive affect for entire sample (beta=.12, p<.05) and for whites in particular (beta=.12, p<.05); formal nonreligious participation increased positive affect in white man and decrease negative affect in black men; and informal volunteering increased positive affect in older black man and white women; multi-variate modeling used)
McIntosh, W.A., Fitch, S.D., Wilson, J.B., & Nyberg, K.L. (1981). The effects of mainstream religios social controls on adolescent drug use in rural areas. Review of Religious Research, 23, 54-75. (examined religion as a social control; C/S survey of probability sample identified using stratified cluster design; sampled 1,358 teens ages 12-19 attending public schools in the Brazos Valley area of Texas, most in rural areas; rural adolescents (n=1,058) both attended religious services more frequently and said that religion was more important to them than urban adolescents (n=300); church attendance was one of the most powerful predictors of lower marijuana and hard drug use, whereas religious salience was tended to predict lower soft drug and marijuana use; religious preference was less influential; multivariate analyses used; they concluded that "The greater the importance of religious beliefs and the more often church services are attended, regardless of the religion or denomination in question, the less likely that the individual uses drugs." (p 70)
McKee, D. D., & Chappel, J.N. (1992). Spirituality and medical practice. Journal of Family Practice, 35, 201-208.
McKinney, J.P., McKinney, K. G. (1999). Prayer in the lives of late adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 279-290. (This cross-sectional study found a relationship between identity status and frequency of praying among college students. There was also association found between identity status and commitment to religion. Qualitative analysis indicated that prayer may be a revealing approach to the psychosocial lives of late adolescents including their central concerns, temporal orientation, and the social bounds of their definition of self.)
McLuckie, B.F., Zahn, M., & Wilson, A. (1975). Religious correlates of teenage drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 5(2), 129-139. (C/S survey involving 27,175 students grades 7-12 in Pennsylvania (stratified random sampling method used to select 50% of school districts from which students came); Jewish teenagers and non-affiliates had the highest rate of drug use; non-church attenders were nearly twice as likely as regular weekly attenders to use drugs; among those who never attended church, drug use was three times that of those attending church regularly (15% vs 5%); the correlation between religious attendance and drug use weakened when "frequency of close friends' use of drugs" was controlled for (-.15 to -.09), but remained significant.)
McMordie, W.R. (1981). Religiosity and fear of death: Strength of belief system. Psychological Reports, 49, 921-922. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 120 male, 200 female undergraduate psychology students completed self-perceived religiosity checklist, followed by Templer-McMordie Death Anxiety scale; medium religiosity subjects had significantly higher death anxiety (p<.05) than the high or low religiosity groups, suggesting a curvilinear relationship)
McNamara, P.H., & St. George, A. (1979). Measures of religiosity and the quality of life. In Moberg, D.O. (ed), Spiritual Well-Being: Sociological Perspectives. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 229-236 (don't have it) (C/S survey of national random sample conducted by U of Mich SRC of 2,164 persons age 18 or older in U.S. (Quality of American Life Survey); 8-items measured religious commitment: importance of religious faith, satisfaction with religion, denominational preference, attendance, religious-mindedness, attednance at religious instruction as child, church membership, and membership in church-connected group; standard scales of life satisfaction, marital satisfaction, family life satisfaction, personal competence, general affect, and well-being; not surprising, satisfaction with religion related to most other life satisfaction outcomes; church membership was significantly related to personal competence; no other associations reported) (poor study)
McRae, MB, Carey, P.M., Anderson-Scott, R. (1998). Black churches as therapeutic systems: a group process perspective. Health Education & Behavior, 25, 778-789.
McSherry, E., Kratz, D., Nelson, W.A. (1986). Pastoral care departments: More necessary in the DRG era? HCMR, 11, 47-59. (nice review of importance of chaplain services in containing costs in hospitals; provides several case examples, showing cost savings; no other new data) (health service use)
McSherry, E. (1986). Critical role of VA Policymakers in modernizing chplaincy for major gains in quality of care and economics. National VA endorsers Bulletin (NAVAC), Winter 1986
McSherry, E., Salisbury, S., Ciulla, M., & Tsuang, D. (1987). Spiritual resources in older hospitalized men. Social Compass 34(4):515-537. Using the Spiritual Profile Assessment (reported in McSherry, Kratz & Nelson, 1986), 80 elderly men were interviewed to assess "stage of spiritual development, problems with churches and their leaders the patients had experienced, current spiritual concerns, and the patients' current spiritual resources." (p. 518). All subjects were veterans hospitalized for treatments relating to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) or Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Among the CABG patients (n=43), patients who self-rated as moderately to highly religious "left the hospital 19.5% earlier than those rating themselves uninterested or little interested in religion" (p.519, ANOVA, p<.05). Among the SCI patients (n=37), patients who rated themselves as moderate to highly religious had less life stressors than those uninterested or little interested in religion when compared on the Holmes test (no significance indicated). The remaining assessments are used to describe the issues facing these men as pertains to their spiritual development. The discussion is a far-ranging analysis of religious institutional shortcomings in the US in terms of curricular offerings and a review of previous studies and Gallup polls about how traditional churches can meet the needs of their congregations.
McSherry, E. (1993). Chaplain visit effect on hospital resource use. Abstract and Boston Globe article.
McSherry referral (new study). Measuring the results of faith. Hospitals & Health Networks, September 20, 1996
McSherry, E., Fitzgerald, R., & Hefernan, H. (1995). Chaplains and The Healthcare CEO. Presented at the Conference on Spirituality and Health Care Outcomes (11), Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 3/21/97
Meador, K.G., Koenig, H.G., Turnbull, J., Blazer, D.G., George, L.K., & Hughes, D. (1992). Religious affiliation and major depression. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 1204-1208. (C/S survey of probability sample involving 2,850 adults participating in NIMH ECA study, Duke University site; greater rate of major depression in Pentecostals vs. other affiliations (5.4% vs. 1.7%); even after controlling for covariates, rate of major depression in Pentecostals was three times greater than for other affiliations)
Meador, K. G., & Koenig, H. G. (2000). Spirituality and religion in psychiatric practice: parameters and implications. Psychiatric Annals, in press
Mechanic, D. (1963). Religion, religiosity, and illness behavior: The special case of the Jews. Human Organization, 22, 202-208. (purpose of article is to direct attention to religious differences in illness behavior, and to discuss pattenrs of illness behavior among Jewish populations; data on illness behavior by 1300 students at two universities -- one a prive university in western U.S. and the other a midwestern state university; examined willingness to consult a physician in three hypothetical illness situations of increasing severity; examined tendency to visit a physician by male freshmen students at the western university across religious denominations, and found that Jews (n=34) were more likely to be in the "high" category than Protestants (n=398), those with no religious affiliation (n=47), or Catholics (n=59) (71% vs 55% vs 47% vs 42%, p<.05, uncontrolled); in the second study, examined religious reaving and tendency to visits a physician among introductorysociology students at the mid-western university; found that Jews (n=125) had a higher tendency to visit a physician than either Protestants (n=457) or Catholics (n=159) (57% vs 39% vs 41%, p<.01, uncontrolled); "The 'near-compulsive' concern about health and illness in Jewish culture probably accounts in part for various trends that have been observed." (p 206); finally, found that church attendance was inversely related to tendency to visit a physician; only 38% of persons attending services every two weeks or more (n=425) had a high tendency to visit a physician, compared with 47% of those atttending about once/month (n=104) and 48% of those attending only a few times a year or less (n=225) (p<.05, uncontrolled) (this is true, however, only for Catholics) (health service use)
Mechanic, D. (1974). In B.S. Dohrenwend, B.P. Dohrenwend (eds), Stressful Life Events. NY: Wiley (don't have) (studying the use of outpatient medical services, has suggested that stress helps to trigger use of a medical facility, if not the development of symptoms; concluded that the illness onset is the outcome of multiple characteristics of the individual interacting with factors in the person's social context in the presence of a disease-producing agent, and that the conceptual model of effects should be comprehensive, multicausal, and interactive)
Mechanic, D. (1990). Promoting health. Society, January/February, pp 16-22 (excellent review of whole topic of health promotion) (emphasizes that a wide range of religious groups tend to encourage moderation and to frown upon "extreme' or risk-taking behaviors, thus contributing to better health)
Medalie, J. H., Snyder, M., Groen, J. J., Neufeld, H. N., Goldbourt, U., Riss E. (1973). Angina pectoris among 10,000 men: 5-year incidence and univariate analysis. American Journal of Medicine, 55, 583-594
Medalie, J.H., Kahn, H.A., Neufeld, H.N., Riss, E., Goldbourt, U., Perslstein, T., & Oron, D. (1973). Myocardial infarction over a five-year period - I. Prevalence, incidence and mortality experience. Journal of Chronic Disease, 26, 63-84. (prospective cohort study of 10,000 male adult government and municipal employees in Israel beginning in 1963 (random sample); data on prevalence, incidence, and mortality from ischemic heart disease is presented in this paper; 5-year MI incidence (including sudden death) was 44/1000 between 1963 and 1968; 68 of 427 myocardial infarctions died during study period; 8.7/1000 rate of MI is high, compared to studies in other countries, but this contrasts with the extremely low case-fatality rate of 68/427 (or 16/100 over 2.5 years of observation); Medalie presents the following data which refer to Shapiro et al (1969) report of MI and Jews in the New York HIP study: among white males, Jews have a higher incidence of MI (age-adjusted MI/1000 was 6.6 for Jews, 5.0 for Protestants, and 4.5 for Catholics, p 33 of Shapiro et al), but Jews are less likely to die from them within 48 hours (24/100 Jews, 33/100 Protestants, and 38/100 Catholics); one wonders if Jews weren't more likely to get timely medical care, compared with lower SES Catholics)
Medalie, J.H., Kahn, H.A., Neufled, H.N. Riss, E., & Goldbourt, U. (1973). Five-year myocardial infarction incidence-II. Association of single variables to age and birthplace. Journal of Chronic Disease , 26, 329-349. (prospective cohort study that examined factors associated with devloping a first MI within 5 years following initial examination of 10,000 males aged 40 or over in study described above; although no data on religion is reported, the authors indicate on the last page of the article that "The results of the sociological questionnaire will be the subject of a separate publication but it might be added here that one of the factors which stood out was the inverse relationship betwen the degree of religiosity and the 3-year incidene of myocardial infarction -- in other words, the more religious developed fewer infarcts..." (p 346)
Medalie, J.H., & Goldbourt, U. (1976). Angina pectoris among 10,000 men. II. Psychosocial and other risk factors as evidenced by a multivariate analysis of a five year incidence study. American Journal of Medicine, 60, 910-921. (no mention of religiosity) 10,000 adult Israeli men, aged 40 and over, were followed for five years (1963-1968). Over 100 risk factor variables were tested for association with the development of angina pectoris. Those variables significant at the p<.01 level are as follows: 1) Those born in South Eastern Europe, 2) age, 3) blood group A1BJka-(Jka- = Kidd-) 4) blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), 5) intermittent claudication, 6) diabetes mellitus (and casual blood glucose), 7) nonspecific T waves in the resting ECG, 8) Total serum cholesterol, 9) cholesterol in beta-lipoprotein, 10) anxiety, 11) severe problems of whatever nature, 12) geographic. Presence of loving and supportive wife in cases of high anxiety reduced incidence of angina from .093 to .052.
Meisenhelder, J.B. (1986). Self-esteem in women: The influence of employment and perception of husbands' appraisals. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 18, 8-14. (C/S survey of stratified random sample of 163 women (85% response) ages 25-45 living at home with husbands and children in suburban Boston (mean age 35, 2.2 children, 40% Jewish, 34% Catholic, 17% Catholic); strength of religious beliefs and religious affiliation; self-esteem by 10-item Rosenberg scale; for homemakers (n=68), self-esteem correlated with two variables, one of which was religious strength, which also had the strongest correlation with self-esteem (beta .38, p<.01); for employed women, religious strength unrelated (r=.12) to self-esteem, which was predicted by quality of relationship with husband, older age, and part/full time employment; these are results from a regression model controlling for seven other predictors of self-esteem)
Melone, L., Hall, L. (1999). Patients E. technology month, in corporation of their spirituality in medical treatment. Internet: http://www.templeton.org/course98/press_release12_14.asp (6/18/99) (a national polled release by Harvard Medical School supported that patients want their spiritual issues addressed in medical setting.
Mercer, D., Lorden, R., & Falkenberg, S. (1995). Mediating effects of religiousness on recovery from victimization. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York City, NY (don't have) (107 persons who were involved and injured in auto accidents caused by drunk drivers; importance of religious beliefs were associated with greater well-being (.14) but not any of the other 7 mental health measures; pre-crash attendance was weakly related to greater well-being (.09), less anxiety (-.05), less depression (-.06), and less PTSD (-.07); seeking spiritual comfort in life and asking for guidance from God in decision making were both correlated with higher well-being (.12 and .10), but not with psychological symptoms, PTSD, or event impact)
Merritt, MM, Bennett, GG, Williams, RB (1999). Low religiosity enhances cardiovascular reactivity among black males with low education. Presented at Annual Meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society, 2000. Studied 74 normotensive healthy black males aged 18-49; for persons low in overall religiosity, low education was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure across the entire protocol (p<.0096). A similar trend effect was found for persons low in non-organizational religiosity (p<.04). These findings suggest that low religiosity produces increased cardiovascular reactivity in the context of low educational attainment among black males. Used DUREL.
Meyer, M.S., Altmaier, E.M., & Burns, C.P. (1992). Religious orientation and coping with cancer. Journal of Religion and Health, 31(4), 273-279. This study used a convenience sample of 40 hematology-oncology patients (26M, 14F, primarily white) from Iowa. Subjects completed the Measure of Daily Coping (Stone & Neale, 1984) and Allport's Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale (1967). Using chi-square analyses, the study demonstrated that pro-religious and intrinsic participants used religion as a coping strategy more frequently than non-religious or extrinsic types (p<.01). It also demonstrated that pro-religious and intrinsic participants used direct action as a coping strategy more frequently than non-religious or extrinsic types. The authors concluded that religious orientation can influence the coping process.
Miah, M.M.R. (1993). Factors influencing infant/child mortality in Bangladesh: Implication for family planning programs and policies. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 23 (Autumn), 21-34 (data from Bangladesh Fertility Survey, which contains detailed information on women's childbearing behavior and contraceptive practices; infant/child mortality was inversely related to religion (Muslim=1, Hindu=0) (-.23, p<.05, controlling for 10 covariates) among women of medium parity (4-5 births) (n=934), but unrelated to those with 0-3 births (n=1772) or more than 5 births (n=1984); explained that the medium parity Muslim group probably included mostly middle and upper classs couples who had better access to health facilities and medical care)
Mickley, J.R., Carson, V., & Soeken, K.L. (1995). Religion and adult mental health: state of the science in nursing. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 16, 345-360. (reviews the major empirical data on religion and mental health pertinent to nursing)
Mickley, J.R., Soeken, K., & Belcher, A. (1992). Spiritual well-being, religiousness and hope among women with breast cancer. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 24, 267-272. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 175 women with breast CA at two oncology outpt treatment centers in Texas (mean age 58, 80% white, 57% Protestant, 33% within one year of diagnosis); hope scores (19-item Nowotny Hope Scale) univariately correlated with intrinsic religiosity (0.36, p<.001) and RWB (.44, p<.001); but, when covariates controlled, only EWB predicted hope; may be some prob with entry of variables and collinearity, though, or that religious variables may be having their effect through EWB)
Mickley, J., & Soeken, K. (1993). Religiousness and hope in Hispanic- and Anglo-American women with breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 20, 1171-1177. (convenience sample of 25 hispanic and 25 anglo outpatients with breast cancer (see 1992 study above); hope scores univariately correlate with SWB (.60, p<.01), RWB (.43, p<.01), and EWB (.63, p<.01) in Hispanics, but not intrinsic religiosity (0.22); hope scores correlate with SWB (.72), RWB (.59), EWB (.71), and IR (.58) in anglo women, all p<.01); no control variables)
Midanik, L.T., & Clark, W.B. (1995). Drinking-related problems in United States: Description and trends, 1984-1990. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 395-402. (C/S national probability sample of 855 current drinkers in 1984 and 748 current drinkers in 1990; single items of religious affiliation and importance of religion; alcohols related problems in past year were assessed by asking about 13 symptoms of alcohol dependence and 21 social consequences; significant dependence defined as 3 or more dependence symptoms, significant social consequences defined as 2 or more; participants indicating the religion was "very important" were significantly less likely to have significant dependence (4% vs 8% in 1984 and 5% vs 10% in 1990); they were also significantly less likely to have significant social consequences (7% vs 14% in 1985 and 9% vs 16% in 1990); logistic regression model controlling for other factors indicated that for those whom religion is important, the likelihood of having two or more social consequences from drinking is reduced by 50% (OR 0.50, p<.05)
Middleton, W.C., & Putney, S. (1962). Religious, normative standards and behavior. Sociometry, 25, 141-152. 554 college students from Florida and California (predominantly White and Protestant) answered anonymous questionnaires (260 M, 294 F). Religiosity was measured as belief in God vs. atheistic, agnostic or deistic beliefs. The authors find no evidence that religious sanctions are essential to sustain basic social norms. Although religious individuals are more likely to believe in traditional ascetic morality than skeptics (sign test, p<.05), there was no significant difference in beliefs in social morality. Believers are less likely to engage in anti-ascetic behaviors than skeptics (sign test, p<.05). When compared with two other measures of religiosity (church attendance and importance of religious convictions to the individual), the first measure was highly correlated. Thus, the results regarding normative standards are not a function of the measure of religiosity.
Miller, A.M., & Champion, V.L. (1993). Mammography in women greater than or equal to 50 years of age: Predisposing and enabling characteristics. Cancer Nursing, 16, 260-269. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 151 women members of four urban churches in Indiana; 81% reported at least one mammogram and 24% followed mammography guidelines for previous 3 years; among the factors associated with ever having a mammogram and adherence, was religion; Catholic (vs Protestant) women were nearly 6 times more likely to have followed rcommended mammography guidelines over past 3 years (p=.01, from logistic regression)(note, however, that Catholics had higher income and education levels that may not have been completely controlled for in regression - though were included in models)(compliance)
Miller, A.S., & Hoffmann, J.P. (1995). Risk and religion - an explanation of gender differences in religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 34, 63-75. (nationally representative sample of 2408 high school seniors; found that risk-taking tendency (attraction to risk and to danger) is inversely related to religiosity (attendance and importance of religion)
Miller, J.F. (1985). Assessment of loneliness and spiritual well-being in chronically ill and healthy adults. Journal of Professional Nursing, 1, 79-85. (loneliness and SWB studied in a convenience sample of 54 chronically ill adults with rheumatoid arthritis from a rhematology clinic in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 64 healthy adult controls (out of a "random" sample of 160 university faculty members exclusive of nursing faculty); results indicated an inverse relationship between SWB and loneliness in both ill (-.27, p<.01) and healthy (-.39, p<.001) groups; ill subjects had higher SWB (94.3 vs 83.7, p<.01) and RWB (48.0 vs 38.2, p<.0001) than healthy subjects (but no difference in existential well-being between ill and health subjects); canonical analysis was performed, but results are difficult to interpret; author concluded that "chronic illness may be a factor in stimulating the person's valuing religion, having faith in God, and having a relationship with God" (p 83); finding supported by another study by the author of coping strategies utilized by 56 chronically ill subjects; after "seeks information", the most frequently used category of coping was "gains strength from spirituality")
Miller, J.J., Fletcher, K., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17, 192-200. (3-year follow-up of Kabat-Zinn et al (1992) study shows maintenance of gains in 18 of 22 subjects on Hamilton and Beck anxiety and depression scales (p<.001) and reduction of panic attacks (p=.01); 10/18 continued to practice a form of mindfulness medication at 3- year follow-up); also reported on 39 of 97 non-study participants (which they incorrectly say original n=58) who were follow-up at 3 years -- showed sustained improvements on SCL-90 and anxiety subscale of SCL-90 (note 40% follow-up); again, no control group to compare with)
Miller, K. (1999). Life satisfaction and older adults: impact of social support and religious beliefs. Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Research Conference on Aging, UCLA Faculty Center, Los Angeles CA. C/S survey of 242 older adults surveyed on religious beliefs, life satisfaction, social support, and health. Religious status inventory used to major religious variable. Neugarten life satisfaction index. Found that religious please were independently associated with greater life satisfaction beyond that of social support. In particular, importance of religion, worship and commitment, involvement in organized religion, and a higher order factor of religious beliefs were all associated with life satisfaction. Religious please overall did not affect depression level, however. One dimension of religious beliefs did however: importance of religion and daily life; this is inversely related to depression.
Miller, L., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., & Weissman, M. (1997). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1416-1425.] (prospective cohort study of 60 mothers and 151 offspring, offspring followed for 10 years (part of a large study led by Myrna Weissman); results: (1) among mothers, religious importance and Catholicism (time 10) were protective against major depression (time 1-time 10); (2) maternal religious importance and maternal Catholicism (time 10) were marginally significantly associated with decreased MDD in offspring (time 1-time 10); (3) among offspring, religiosity not associated with MDD; and (4) mother-offspring concordance of denomination (time 10) was associated with decreased MDD in offspring (time 1-time 10); concluded that maternal religiosity influences the character of maternal child rearing and shapes the home environment)
Miller, P.Y., & Simon, W. (1974). Adolescent sexual behavior: Context and change. Social Problems, 22, 58-76. (C/S survey of a stratified random sample of 2,064 white adolescent girls and boys ages 14-17 (youth in state of Illnois); self-rated religiousness was measured by single item (very, somewhat, not very, not at all); percentage of pre-marital coital experience for both boys and girls was less for 14-15 year-olds (males: 3.8%, 4.2%, 10.6%, 22.9%; females: 5.4%, 2.8%, 6.9%, 16.7%) and for 16-17 year-olds (males: 14.6%, 11.6%, 28.3%, 47.2%; females: 16.4%, 18.3%, 22.5%, 48.8%) (all p<.01, uncontrolled) (good)
Miller, S.L., Norcross, W.A., & Bass, R.A. (1980). Breast self-examination in the primary care setting. The Journal of Family Practice, 10, 811-815. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 260 women attending three primary care practices in San Diego; rates of breast self-examination were determined (83% white, 67% Christian, 23% college graduates, 69% age 30 or younger); Jews and Protestants performed more breast self-examinations than Catholics (7.5 and 7.3 vs 5.3, p<.05, uncontrolled) (due to fact that Mexican-Americans seldom did BSE's and most MA's were Catholic)
Miller, W.R. (unknown). Spiritual dimensions in research on alcohol and other drug problems. Manuscript.
Miller, RN. (1982). Study on the effectiveness of remote mental healing. Medical Hypotheses 8(5):481-490. Study involving eight healers and 96 patients to determine the effectiveness of remote mental healing. All test subjects had hypertension and were ages 16 to 60. Neither the doctor or patients knew who received the mental healing treatments. Normal medical treatment was given to all subjects. Outcomes were changes in diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and weight. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement in systolic blood pressure in the healer-treated group compared with the control group. No significant differences found for diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, or weight. Four of the eight healers (those who "had the highest number of return patients") had a 92.3% improvement ratio in their group of patients compared with 73.7% for the control group. Mental healing involved a relaxation step, attunement with a higher power or infinite being, visualization and affirmation of the patient in a state of perfect health, and expression of thanks to God or to the source of all power and energy. The average change for the systolic blood pressure for the control group was -8 units. The average change for the patients treated by the four healers was -13.8 units (p=.01).
(?) Miller WR (1998). Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems. Addiction. 93(7):979-90.
Millison, M. B. (1988). Spirituality and the caregiver: developing and underutilized facet of care. American Journal of Hospice Care, 5, 37-44.
Mindel, C.H., & Vaughan, C.E. (1978). A multidimensional approach to religiosity and disengagement. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 103-108. (C/S survey of a convenience sample of 106 elderly persons in Columbia, Missouri, who were living with relatives (52 with siblings and 54 with children or granchildren) (persons identified by city directory, consulting ministers, consulting voluntary associations, etc.); sample was 11% Black, 82% female, average age of 77, 44% with only grade school education; organizational religious activity (ORA) (attending religious revivals, attending religious services, contributing money to religious activities) and non-organizational religiosity (NORA) (listening to religious services on radio and TV, praying alone or with family, listening to religious music, whether or not religious ideas have helped in understanding of one's life); 55% of sample attended religious services only 3-4 times/year or less (functional disability -- one of reasons why they were living with relatives -- preventing attendance ?); a majority of of the sample (62.3%), however, were engaged in NORA "very often" (particularly persons who had low religious attendance); interestingly, however, ORA was unrelated to level of health impairment (method of health assessment not given) (relatives with whom they were living may have provided transportation to religious activities, authors suggest); NORA were slightly more common among the health impaired group (1.55 vs 1.37, .10>p>.05); with regard to involvement in social activity, ORA was significantly related (p<.001), but NORA was not) (no controls); concluded that "the level of nonorganizational religious activity of those who do not attend church is considerable and an important finding to those who argue that religion ought to be analyzed and studied apart from the context of formal organizational activity." (p 106) (important point, but weak study)
Minear, J.D., & Brush, L.R. (1980-81). The correlations of attitudes toward suicide with death anxiety, religiosity, and personal closeness. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 11, 317-324. (C/S survey of a convenience sample of students from four New England schools -- a private university, a public university, a hospital nursing school and a Catholic seminary college; 394 students, mean age 20 yo, participated; religiosity measured by religious affiliation, strength of attachment to religious belief, and frequency of religious attendance; a 10-item Suicide Beliefs scale, a n 11-item Suicide Values scale, and an 8-item Belief in Afterlife Scale; death anxiety correlated positively with Suicide Beliefs (r=.10, p<.05) and Suicide Values (.12, p<.01); religious attachment was inversely related to Suicide Beliefs (-.29, p<.001) and Suicide Values (-.17, p<.001), as was religious attendance (-.50, p<.001, for Suicide Beliefs, -.33, p<.001, for Suicide Values) and belief in afterlife (-.45 for Beliefs, -.26 for Values, both p<.001); death anxiety was inversely related to belief in afterlife (-.08, p<.05), but not with strenght of attachment or frequency of attendance; no control variables)
Mireault, M., & deMan, A. (1996). Suicidal ideation among the elderly: personal variables, stress, and social support. Social Behavior and Personality, 24(4), 385-392.
Mitchell, J., Mathews, H.F., & Yesavage, J.A. (1993). A multidimensional examination of depression among the elderly. Research on Aging, 15, 198-219. C/S survey of a random sample of 868 persons aged 65-101 in eastern North Carolina to examine the impact of variables that moderate the impact of life strain on depression (ave age 75, 65% women, 90% fairly or deeply religious); life strain measured by hearing impairment, ADL limitations (13 items), and poverty status; moderator variables included social contact, social support, and belief in religious intervention in illness ("Have you been cured of an illness through prayer? Do you believe in religious miracles? How strongly do you believe that prayer will heal illness?" (score range 9 to 27); depression measured by 15-item GDS (with 3 dimensions: life satisfaction, withdrawal, and general depressive affect); regression analysis revealed that Religious Intervention was inversely related to the withdrawal subscale (-.09, p<.05), but was positively related to general depressive affect (.07, p<.05), and there was a significant interaction between ADL impairment and religious intervention (p<.05), such that general depressed affect tends to be higher among those with ADL limitations who also believe in religious intervention in illness; indepth interviews with 200 respondents revealed that there was a tendency for people with ADL limitations to believe in religious intervention to cure them; when cures do not occur, however, they blame themselves) (negative study)
Mitchell, R.E., Cronkite, R.C., & Moos, R.H. (1983). Stress, coping, and depression among married couples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 433-448. (C/S survey of a convenience sample of community couples (n=157) and couples in which one person was depressed (n=157) from Stanford University Hospital and VA Hospital in Palo Alto, CA; cases and controls were matched; men were significantly older and had more years of education than women, otherwise groups were quite comparable; completed Health and Daily Living Form, Family Environment Scale, and Work Environment Scale; variables included measures of social background, negative life events, chronic strain coping responses (problem solving and emotional discharge), family supports (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict), and depression (18 symptoms on 0-4 scale); depressed patients were more stressed and possessed fewer personal and social resources; spouses of cases fell between depresed partneres and control subjects on above factors; negative life events, coping, and family suppport were directly related to depression; refers to studies that show that social support buffers the effects of negative life events (Gottlieb 1981; Heller & Swindle 1983; House 1981; Mtichell & Trickett 1980; Mitchell et al 1982); no mention of religion)
Mitka, M. (1998). Getting religion seen as help in being well. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1896-1897.
Mittal, D., Sears, SF, Godding, PR, & Reynolds, M.D. (1999). Case report: decision-making capacity and religious conversion--a case of dialysis refusal. Annals of Long-term Care, 7,320-322. (Describe the case of a hemodialysis patient age 55 presenting with recent religious conversion, and subsequent noncompliance with hemodialysis. Working within the patient belief system and maintaining a therapeutic alliance were critical in achieving resolution of this situation)
Moberg, D.O. (1953). Church membership and personal adjustment in old age. Journal of Gerontology, 8, 207-211. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 219 elderly residents of seven nursing homes in Minneapolis-St.Paul, Minnesota; personal adjustment measured by Burgess-Cavan-Havighurst Attitudes Inventory; 132 church members had higher mean personal adjustment score than 87 non-church members (28.4 vs 23.3, p<.01); uncontrolled, but differences persisted in both men and women, and in every instance when members were contrasted to non-members within categories of age, nativity, place of residence, years of schooling, marital and family status, self-rating of health, participation in social organizations, and verbal self-rating of happiness, church members had mean personal adjustment scores higher than non-church members); to test this association further, 53 church members were matched with 53 non-members on sex, present employment, club participation, marital status, number of living children, education, and self-rated health; this reuced the man personal adjustment score of church members to 26.8 and increased non-members to 24.9; this idfference was not statistically significant; when two more matching factors were added (nativity and institution in which subject resided), this reduced sample to 9 persons in each group; this reduced differences even further to 24.1 for church members and 24.2 for non-church members; concluded that church membership by itself is unrelated to personal adjustment in old age)
Moberg, D.O. (1956). Religious activities and personal adjustment in old age. Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 261-267. (C/S survey of 219 persons over age 65 who resided in seven institutions (5 old age homes) in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area (Burgess-Cavan-Havighurst Attitudes Inventory - to assess personal adjustment); religiosity measured by 11 items (church membership, present attendance, present attendance compared to age 55 attendance, age 12 attendance, positions or church offices held, listening to religious radio, reading the Bible, reading other religious books, private prayer, saying grace at meals, frequency of family prayers); religious activities were positively related to adjustment (r=0.59, SE .04, highly significant); those with high rleigious scores (n=86) were compared to those with low religious scores (n=41), showing greater personal adjustment in the former; 19 low-religious persons were then matched by sex, marital status, number of living children, education, present employment, club activities, and self-ratings of health; when questions about which person to select for the match came up, age in years, nativity, and occupational background were used to selected the subject; this resulted in 19 pairs; adjustment score scores for religious vs non-religious differed by a significant degree (28.3 vs 16.3, p<.01)) (excellent study for that period in history)
Moberg, D.O. (1965). Religion in old age. Geriatrics, 977-982 (R)
Moberg, D.O., & Taves, M.J. (1965). Church participation and adjustment in old age. In A.M. Rose, W.A. Peterson (eds), Older People and Their Social World. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company (C/S survey of 5,000 persons aged 60 or over as part of several large surveys in Minnesota, Missouri, North and South Dakota; divided persons into (1) officers and committeemen in curch or other religious organization, (2) other church members, and (3) non-church members; personal adjustment measured by Burgess-Cavan-Havighurst Attitudes Inventory (assessed in terms of happiness, enjoyment, or satisfactions with or from one's health, friendships, employment status, religion (contaminated ?), feeling of usefulness, family, general orientation and happiness in later years); in each of the surveys, personal adjustment was significantly higher among categories 1 and 2, compared to category 3); results persisted at p<.001 in the Minnesota survey (n=1,340) when analyses were stratified by sex, age, education, marital status, home ownership, social participation, changes in social participation, self-ratings of health and concept of age; in summary, among 40 comparisons of personal adjustment among the three groups, there were only 3 reverals of the hypothesized pattern of higher adjustment among church members and leaders (differences not significant when stratified by employment status, but were in the hypothesize direction)
Moberg, D.O. (1970). Religion in the later years. In A.M. Hoffman (ed), The Daily Needs and Interests of Older Persons. Springfiled, ILL: Charles C. Thomas (def of religion) (R)
Moberg, D.O. (1974). Spiritual well-being in late life. In: Jaber F. Gubrium (Ed.). Late Life: Communities and Environmental Policy. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas
Moberg, D.O., & Brusek, P.M. (1978). Spiritual well-being: a neglected subject in quality of life research. Social Indicators Research, 5, 303-323. (review and conceptual development)
Moberg, D.O. (ed) (1979). Spiritual Well-Being: Sociological Perspectives. Washington, DC: University Press of America (includes Kauffman, J.H. Social correlates of spiritual maturity among North American Mennonites (ch 19), pp 237-254)
Moberg, D.O. (1983). The ecological fallacy: concerns for program planners. Generations, 8, 12-14 (R)
Moberg, D.O. (1984). Subjective measures of spiritual well-being. Review of Religious Research, 25, 351-364. (C/S survey of 1,081 adults using 82 item questionnaire; describes construction of a 45-item spiritual well-being scale; factor analysis was used to examine data from 761 respondents in 17 group settings in three regions of the U.S. and, using a Swedish translation, from 320 respondetns in 15 groups from all major regions in Sweden (sampling method unknown); from the 45 items in the scale that could be factor analyzed, 7 indices were developed: 13-item Christian faith index, 9-item self-satisfaction index, 6-item personal piety index, 5-item subjective spiritual well-being index, 4-item optimism index, 3-item religious cynicism index, and 3-item elitism index; in addition, 3 indices were developed from items that had dichotomized responses and could not be factor analyzed: political involvement, religious involvement, and charitable involvement; when SWB index was correlated with 9 other indices, found high correlations with Christian faith, self-satisfaction, personal piety, less religious cynicism, and religious involvement, and weaker (but p<.01) positive correlations with elitism, political involvement, and charitable involvement; there was no correlation with optimism) (no control variables)
Moberg, D.O. (1985). Spirituality and science: The progress, problems, and promise of scientific research on spiritual well-being. Conference on Christian Faith and Science in Society, Oxford, England (R)
Moberg, D.O. (1987). Holy masquerade: Hypocrisy in religion. Review of Religious Research, 29, 3-24. (review and opinion) (hypocrisy is associated with extrinsic religiosity; and is defined as pretending to be holy or virtuous when one really is not)
Moberg, D.O. (1995). The multidimensional assessment of spiritual well-being. Paper presented at the Spiritual Assessment Conference, March 20-21 (R)
Moberg, D.O. (1996). Religion in gerontology: From benign neglect to belated respect. The Gerontologist, 36, 264-267. (review)
Modan, B., Nissenkorn, I., & Lewkowski, S.R. (1970). Suicide in a heterogeneous society. British Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 65-68. (suicide rates in Israel) (all records of deaths by suicide in Isreal were extracted from 1962-63 Central Bureau of Statistics; analyses limited to Jewish population because of unreliability of data on Arab segment; average suicide rate/100,000 was 11.8, with rates higher among men (12.7) than women (10.9), and increasing by age group to maximum of 20.8 among 55-64 yo men and 19.4 among 65 year plus women)
Mohan, D., Sharma, K., & Sundaram, R. (1979). Patterns and prevalence of opium use in rural Punjab (India). Bulletin on Narcotics, 31, 45-56. (C/S survey of a random sample of 2,064 men and 1,536 women age 15 or over in Punjab, India; 9.6% of men were ever users and 0.5% of women were ever-users of opium; analyses were carried out for men to assess predictors of opium use; religion was significantly associated with opium use, with Sikh's (n=1,466 or 71% of all men) more likely to be ever users than were Hindus (n=464 or 23% of all men) or other religions (11.7% vs 5.3% vs 1.9%, p<.001, uncontrolled))
Mohiuddin, A. (1998). Sufi healing practices. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia, 87,319-320.
Mol, H. (1970). Religion and sex in Australia. Australian Journal of Psychology, 22(2), 105-114. (C/S survey of multi-stage national probability sample of 1,825 persons in Australia; belief in God by 3-point scale, church attendance by 3-point scale; asked about (a) sexual relations before marriage and (b) sexual relations after marriage with anyone other than spouse (approve, disapprove, or doesn't worry); among those over age 40, men not believing in a personal God were less disapproving of sex before marriage (37% vs 78%) than men believing in a personal God; for men ages 20-40, the difference was similar (14% vs 63%); among women, diferences were similar for 20-40 group (28% vs 77%), but narrowed for the over 40 group (69% s 87%) (differences at p<.01-.001); similar trends were found for extramarital sex (74% vs 92% men >40, 66% vs 88% men 40, 90% vs 95% women >40, 89% vs 90%, women 40); for never or hardly ever vs. usually or always going to church, figures were 53% vs 80% men>40, 37 vs 49 men 40, 72% vs 91% women>40, 58% vs 77% women40; effects of religious variables on disapproval of premarital sex and extramarital sex were equal to or greater than either sex or age effects) (variables not controlled)
Mollica, R.F., Streets, F.J., Boscarino, J., & Redlich, F.C. (1986). A community study of formal pastoral counseling activities of the clergy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 323-328. (list of all known clergy in south-central Connecticut was obtained from the Metropolitan New haven Directory of Churches and Synagoges; the 214 or 290 clergy who responded to the C/S survey were divided into (1) traditional clergy (Methodist, Episcopalian, Unitarian, Catholic priests, and Rabbis) (n=116), (2) evangelical clergy (Pentecostal ministers excluded) (n=13), (3) Black clergy (n=21), and (4) pastoral counselors (n=64); two-thirds of traditional clergy spent 10% or less of their time providing pastoral counseling, whereas the majority of Black and evangelical clergy spent 11%-25% of their time counseling; most clergy had not received formal training in counseling; Black ministers were more likely to counsel poor individuals, to counsel persons with drug or alcohol problems, and to be involved in crisis intervention; traditional or evangelical clergy were more likely to be sought out for help or have someone referred to them, whereas Black clergy were more likely to seek out emotionally troubled persons; only pastoral counselors charged fees ($25 or less), and only 22% charged anything; pastoral counselors made the most referrals to psychiatric professionals and evangelical clergy made the fewest; evangelical clergy primarily referred to other clergy; more than three quarters of traditional, evangelical, and pastoral counselors and more than half of Black clergy had never received a referral from the regional mental health center) (emphasizes lack of communication between clergly and mental health professionals)
*[Monk, M., Lilienfield, A. & Mendeloff, A. (1962). Preliminary report of an epidemiologic study of cancers of the colon and rectum. Paper presented at meeting of the epidemiology section, American Public Health Association, 1962 (referred to by Comstock & Partridge 1972)] (patients with CA of rectum less likely to be members of a rleigious body and attended services less often than controls from same population matched for sex, race and age group; not true for patients with cancer of the colon)
Monte, P. (1991). Attitudes toward the voluntary taking of life: An updated analysis of euthanasia correlates. Sociological Spectrum, 11(3), 265-277.
Montgomery, A., & Francis, L.J. (1996). Relationship between personal prayer and school-related attitudes among 11-16-year-old girls. Psychological Reports, 78, 787-793. (CS, 392 girls ages 11-16 attending single-sex Catholic secondary school in United Kingdom; sample method not given; personal prayer on 5-point scale; 6 semantic differential for responses to lessons in English, music, religion, math, sports, and school itself; regression controlling for age and social class; p<.05 for music, religion, school, and English; concluded that "pupils who pray hold a more positive attitude toward school than pupils who do not pray." (p 791) (confirms findings from study of 3,762 11th graders by Francis 1992) (R-6)
*[Montgomery, H.A., Miller, W.R., & Tonigan, S. (1995). Does Alcoholics Anonymous involvement predict treatment outcome? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12, 241-246 (patients receiving inpatient treatment for alcoholism were followed for 31 weeks after discharge; found no relationship between frequency of "attendance" at AA and sobriety, but did find a significant association between "involvement" in AA and maintenance of abstinence)
Mookherjee, H.N. (1986). Comparison of some personality characteristics of male problem drinkers in rural Tennessee. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 31, 23-28. (C/S survey of 1477 white males in rural middle Tennessee who were administered the MAST as part of DWI rehabiliation program between 1975-1979 (systematically sampled); divided into 644 alcoholics, 704 probable alcoholics, and 129 non-alcoholics (mean age was 39); completed an 11-item Religious Fundamentalism Scale); religious fundamentalism was unrelated to alcohol group; no controls)
Moore, M., & Weiss, S. (1995). Reasons for non-drinking among Israeli adolescents of four religions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 38, 45-50. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 2,366 adolescents in Israel: 1300 Jewish (19% Orthodox), 674 Moslems, 235 Druze, and 157 Christians; Jews and Druze more likely to be male, 45% and 55%; results indicated that the 4th most common reason for abstinence was "My religion is intolerant of alcohol use" (primarily due to 2nd and 1st most common among Moslems and Druze); among Jews, religiosity (religious vs secular Jew) was unrelated to reasons for not drinking)
Moore, R.D., Mead, L., & Pearson, T.A. (1990). Youthful precursors of alcohol abuse in physicians. American Journal of Medicine, 88, 332-336. (prospective cohort study of 1,014 male medical students enrolled at Johns Hopkins from 1948-1964; in 1986, the CAGE alcohol screening questionnaire was administered; scores of 2 or higher on CAGE or 4 or more drinks/day of alcohol was defined as alcohol abuse; the strongest univariate predictor during medical school was lack of religious affiliation (Relative Odds=4.1, 95% CI 1.5-12.0) and 3rd greatest risk was non-Jewish ancestry (RO=3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.9); other predictors included cigarrette use 1 ppd or more, regular use of alcohol, anxiety, anger as a reaction to stress, use of alcohol in non-social settings, history of alcohol-related difficulties, maternal alcoholism or mental illness; logistic regression analyses demonstrated that non-Jewish ancestry (R0=2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.6) (which likely heavily covaried with lack of affiliation variable, which dropped out of analysis), history of a problem caused by drinking, smoking, history of maternal metnal illness/alcoholism, nonsocial use of alcohol, and anxiety to stress explained 23% of the variance in alcohol abuse)
Moore, T.V. (1936). Insanity in priests and religious. American Ecclesiastical Review, 95, 485-498, 601-613. (case-control study of all Catholic mental hospitals in United States, and state institutions, city hospitals, county santoria, and private institutions (77%-100% response); of the total number of priests in U.S. in 1935 (30,250) there were 135 admitted to mental hospitals, giving a rate of 446/100,000; of the total number of nuns/sisters in U.S. in 1935 (122,220), 593 were admitted, giving a rate of 485/100,000; of total number of brothers in the United States in 1935 (7,408), there were 31 admitted to mental hospitals, giving a rate of 418/100,000; for comparison, in the U.S. Navy, there were 390 admitted, giving a rate of 357/100,000; in the U.S. Army, there were 740/100,000; this should also be compared with total mental cases per 100,000 in New York (600) in 1934 and in Massachusetts in 1934 (591); the difference is significant at p<.001, suggesting lower rates of mental illness among the Catholic religious; however, they also did find a rate of 4,118/100,000 among cloistered, exclusively contemplative nuns; this is particularly true for schizophrenia in cloistered nuns, where rate was 5 times greater than expected) (suggesting that there was a tendecy of pre-psychotic schizophrenics to seek admission to the religious life); on the other hand, remarks that syphilitic mental conditions are almost unheard of among priests and nuns (sufficiently well-known for Kraeplin to make the comment "Quakers and Catholics are very seldom paretic. Krafft-Ebing saw not a single Catholic priest in 2,000 cases of parensis, but on the other hand, found that as many as 90% of officers in the army with mental disease were paretics... Up to the present paretic nuns seem never to have been observed." (p 487, E. Kraepelin. Psychiatrie II)
Moos, R.H., Bromet, E., Tsu, V., & Moose, B. (1979). Family characteristics and the outcome of treatment for alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 40, 78-88. (122 patients returning to family settings after completing a residental treatment program, who were followed up 6-8 months later and interviewed (patients at Stanford or Palo Alto VA); information from patients and families were obtained from three sources, including a Followup Information Form (FIF) completed by patients, a Family Environment Scale (FES) completed by patients and other family members, and a Family Life Questionnaire completed by non-alcoholic spouse or relative; moral-religious emphasis (subscale of FES) was inversely related to self-rating of drinking problem (-17, p<.05) and positively related to psychological well-being (.23, p<.01) (uncontrolled correlations)
Morgan, P.P. (1994). Spirituality slowly gaining recognition among North American psychiatrists. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 150, 582-585.
Morphew, J.A. (1968). Religion and attempted suicide. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 14, 188-192. (case-control study of 50 suicide attempts with self-poisoning between March 1-June 30, 1967, admitted to General Hospital in Birmingham, England; 17% regularly attended religious services, and while among 18 Catholics, 6 (33%) attended services regularly, among the 21 Church of England, only 1 (5%) attended regularly; in contrast, 76% of the sample regularly attended religious services during childhood (89% Catholics and 62% of Church of England); 60% believed in God (similar for Catholics and COE); 44% believed in an afterlife (61% Catholics and 33% COE); no statistical comparisons within group and no control population to compare group with)
Morris, D.C. (1991). Church attendance, religious activities, and the life satisfaction of older adults in Middletown, U.S.A. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 8, 83-96. (C/S survey of a random sample of 400 persons age 60 or over in the Middletown, Indiana area (telephone interviews) (response rate unknown); assessed church attendance and religious activity (how active are you in religious activities like church groups, circles, or other chruch related forms of social participation); life satisfaction assessed by a single item measure (poor to excellent); religious attendance and religious activity were significantly correlated with LS (.19, p<.001, and .16, p=.001); regression analyses used to determined coefficients for a path diagram; while religious activities had no direct effect on life satisfaction once religious attendance was controlled (to which it was strongly related at beta=.64, p<.001), religious attendance was significantly related to LS (beta=.11, p<.05) (controlled)
Morris, P.A. (1982). The effect of pilgrimage on anxiety, depression and religious attitude. Psychological Medicine, 12, 291-294. (prospective cohort study of 24 persons with serious illness (92% Catholic), average age 60, made pilgrimage to Lourdes; assessed within month preceding pilgrimage (Time 1), 1 month (Time 2) and 10 months (Time 3) after return with Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; found a significant lessening of both state and trait anxiety from Time 1 to Time 2 (p<.01), Time 1 to Time 3 (p<.01), and significant decrease in state anxiety from Time 2 to Time 3 (p<.05); also significant decrease in depression from Time 1 to Time 2 and Time 1 to Time 3, but not between Time 2 to Time 3; relationships were similarly significant when stratified by sex; no other variables controlled; also compared mean religiosity scores on Religious Attitudes Scale (Poppleton & Pilkington) before and after trip; they were not significantly different)
Morris, R.J., & Hood, R.W. (1981). The generalizability and specificity of intrinsic/extrinsic orientation. Review of Religious Research , 22, 245-254. (C/S survey of 134 volunteer students from introductory psychology who received course credits for participation; 76 females and 58 males (mean age 20, primarily Southern Baptists); Allport I-E scale, Survey of Work Values (3 inrinsic scales: pride in work, job involvement, activity preference; 2 extrinsic scales: attitude towards earnings and social status of job), and 32-item Mysticism Scale; pride in work was inversely related to ER for males (-.24) and for combined sample (-.17, both p<.05), whereas mysticism was positively related to it for females and the combined sample; job involvement was positively related to IR (.16) and myticism (.19) and negatively related to ER (-.24) for the combined sample; activity preference was positively related to IR (.18) and mysticism (.16); attitude towards earnings was inversely related to IR and positive related to ER in females (but not males); social status of job was positively related to both IR and ER in males; concluded that IR orientation may serve to insure the continual reference to whatever ultimate cognitive framework the individual is committed (i.e., apply their faith commitment to real life issues outside of church); this would suggest and support the notion that IR is related more to an internal locus of control)
Morse, C.K., & Wisocki, P.A. (1987). Importance of religiosity to elderly adjustment. Journal of Religion & Aging, 4, 15-25. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 156 persons ages 60-90 recruited from senior centers throughout western Massachusetts (71% female, 40% income $10,000/yr before retirement, retired average 10 years, 85% church members, 82% reported no change in health over past 6 months); religious variables were membership in church/temple, religious attendance (0-3), religion as a source of comfort (1-3), which were summed to create a religiosity index, then dichotomized into high and low religiosity; index of chronic illnesses (0-12) was also administered; outcomes were 132-item Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL), 90-item SCL-90, a 35-item worry scale, and a social support index; results indicated that number of chronic illnesses was inversely related to religiosity (-.22, p<.005); depressive, anxiety, somatization, and phobia symptoms on SCL-90 were significantly less common (p<.005, p<.05, p<.05, p<.05) in the high compared with low religious group; likewise, depressive, anxiety, and agressive symptoms were all significantly lower among highly religious subjects (p<.01, p<.05, p<.05); qquality of relations with close neighbors, number of people visited per month, total number of monthly visits, and weekly visits to senior center were all significantly more common among the religious; when chronic physical health was controlled, associations with anxiety disorder disappeared, but those with depression persisted)
Mosher, DL, & Cross, HJ (1971)... Sexual guilt
Mosher, DL (1966) and (1968) - Sexual guilt
Mosher, J.P., & Handal P.J. (1997). The relationship between religion and psychological distress in adolescents. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 25, 449-457. (CS, convenience, 461 of 1037 high school students at Catholic schools in St. Louis; Lipsmeyer's 45-item Personal Religiosity scale (with 9 subscales); six measures of pschologocal adjustment; adolescents scoring low on 3 of 9 religion scales scored above the reported cutoff score indicative of psychological distress, whereas those scoring high on 3 religions scales scored below the cutoff on psychological distress; no controls) (R-6) ________ (1905). Mortality among Jews. British Medical Journal 2 (September 23):734-735 (compared causes of death in Jewish population of London in 1903 (based on data from Burial Society of the United Synagogue) with causes of death for the general population of London in 1903; Jews more likely to die from diseases of nervous system (14.6% vs 5.2%), from diseases of respiratory system (22.3% vs 8.7%), digestive system (13.7% vs 5.4%), but are less likely to die from cancer population (2.4 vs 6.7) and diseases of heart & vessles (7.7 vs 12.4))
Moyers, P. A. (1997). Occupational meanings and spirituality: the quest for sobriety. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51 (3), 207-214. (D. King says describes this as a study that demonstrates the health benefits of the 12-step program of Alcoholics Anonymous are due to a change in intrinsic religiousness; actually, not a study at all - simply compares the Moyers Model with AA model from a theoretical perspective and illustrates with one case example; does provide some interesting references for effectiveness of AA approach)
Mueller, P. et al. (2001). Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Subject review and implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, in press. Perhaps the best review to date of the field.
Mull, C.S., Cox, C.L., & Sullivan, J.A. (1987). Religion's role in the health and well-being of well elders. Public Health Nursing, 4, 151-159.
Mullen, K., & Francis, L.J. (1995). Religiosity and attitudes towards drug use among Dutch school children. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 41, 16-25. (cross-sectional survey of a " representative" sample of 1,534 third and fourth year students from 5 Protestant secondary schools in Netherlands concerning religiosity and attitudes toward use of drugs (alcohol, glue, heroin, marijuana, and tobacco); religious variables included affiliation, belief in the, and religious attendance; religiosity (believers attending regularly) was a significant predictor of attitudes toward use of heroin, glue, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes (all p<.01, uncontrolled); church attendance was more powerful predictor than belief in God; Protestants, and then Catholics, and then non-religious S's had the most negative attitudes towards drugs; "religion had a powerful correlation with the young person's attitudes toward drug use.")
Mullen, K., Williams, R., & Hunt, K. (1996). Irish descent, religion, and alcohol and tobacco us. Addiction, 91, 243-254. (C/S survey of stratified random sample of 985 persons age 35 in West of Scotland; two self-assessment of smoking and drinking and two estimates of alcohol and tobacco use; 49% Prot were moderate to heavy drinkers vs 64% Ca and 60% of non-religious men (p<.05); for smoking (any) this was 24% vs 40% and 37%, p<.05; 32% Prot were moderate-heavy drinkers vs 37% Ca and 49% non-relig women (p<.05); for smoking this was 36% vs 49% and 55%, p<.001); differences for drinking largely persisted after "class effects" were controlled, but those with smoking disappeared)
Mulligan, T., & Reyes-Ortiz, C. (1995). Must physicians ignore God? JAGS (letter) 43, 944-945. (review)
Murphy, TE, Ciarrocchi, J. W., Piedmont, R. L., Cheston, S., Peyrot, M., Fitchett, G. (2000). The relation of religious belief and practices, depression, and hopelessness in persons with clinical depression. Journal of Consulting in Clinical Psychology, in press
Murray, D. C. (1973). Suicidal and depressive feelings among college students. Psychological Reports, 33(1), 175-181.
Murray, M., & McMillan, C. (1993). Social and behavioral predictors of womens cancer screening practices in Northern Ireland. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 15, 147-153. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 391 out of 1162 residents in Northern Ireland; 28% performed BSE regularly, 28% performed it occasionally, and 44% not at all; 48% reported a pap smear several times, 20% only once, and 32% never; BSE performance was predicted by several factors, including religious affiliation (Church of Ireland, i.e. Anglican))
Murstein, B.I., & Fontaine, P.A. (1993). The public's knowledge about psychologists and other mental health professionals. American Psychologist, 48, 839-845. (C/S survey of 90 of 608 residents of Connecticut; the MHP most likely to be consulted by 54 subjects who saw a MHP was first physician (32), then psychologist (24), and then clergy (20) (could pick more than one MHP); clergy person was also the 4th most likely MHP they would recommend to a friend; clergyperson was rated third among 9 MHP as being the most comfortable for patients to see)
Musick, M.A. (1996). Religion and subjective health among black and white elders. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 221-237. (3-year prospective cohort study of stratified random sample of persons age 65 or over in North Carolina (EPESE); Wave I participants numbered 4,162 and Wave II numbered 2,623; used regression analysis to examine predictors of subjective health in Black and White subsamples; for 1,421 Blacks, Wave I religious devotion (private prayer/Bible reading) was significantly related to greater Wave II subjective health (beta=.07, p<.01, using residualized change analysis), but religious attendance was not after functional impairment was controlled (because Blacks with higher levels of functional impairment spend more time in devotional activities, the effect of devotion on subjective health ccannot be seen until functional impairment is controlled); among 1,202 Whites, while there was no main effect for either Wave I devotion or attendance, there was a significant interaction between both and functional impairment (beta=.06, p<.05 and beta=.09, p<.001) (high levels of functional impairment and high devotional activity or high religious attendance at Wave I are related to better perceptions of physical health (Wave II), providing evidence for the comfort role of religion) (comment: greater religious involvement among southern Blacks (especially church attendance) combined with a limited range of religious activity response categories, results in a limited dispersion of the religious variable (and less power to predict health outcomes); furthermore, church attendance is ubiquitous among southern Blacks, making decisions about how often to attend heavily influenced by social expectation and community ethos, rather than religiosity (also see Ellison 1995 and Ellison & Levin 1998))
Musick, M., Williams, D. R., and Jackson, J. S. (1998a). Race-related stress, religion and mental health among African American adults. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Social Stress Research, Budapest, Hungary. (C/S probability sample of 586 black community-dwelling adults in the Detroit Area Study; psychological distress was measured by a 7-item Kessler index, and was measured using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (short composite); religious variables were religious attendance and prayer; stress was operationalized in terms of discrimination (2 measures); results indicated that among men, attendance was inversely associated with negative well-being and major depression, whereas among women, attendance was associated with less psychological stress (controlled); among men, the effects of stress on mental outcomes were moderated by religious attendance; there were mixed findings for prayer; they found that men who used prayer to cope were undergoing more stress than men not using prayer to cope)
Musick, M.A., and Strulowitz, S. (1998b). Public religious activity and depressive symptomatology: a comparison of religious groups in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, under review (7-year prospective cohort study of 13, 017 community-dwelling adults in United States (10,008 in Wave II); 8 religious groups were formed: Jews, conservative Protestant, moderate Protestant, liberal Protestant, black Protestant, Catholics, Mormons, and others cycle depressive symptoms measured by 12-item CES-D (somatic retarded and depressed affect subscales); religion variables were 2 public religious index, participation in church affiliated groups, and belief in the truth of the Bible; social integration, marital status, health status and demographic variables were controls; religious attendance (wave 1) was positively related to somatic retarded activity (wave 2) in Jews (p<.01), but inversely related in conservative Protestants (p<.05), Catholics (p<.05), and Mormons (p<.05); a similar pattern of results was found for depressed affect (wave 2), with religious attendance been positively correlated with depressed affect in Jews (p<.05), and inversely related in conservative Protestants (p<.001) and Mormons (p<.05) (multiple controls)
Musick, M.A., Koenig, H.G., Hays, J.C., & Cohen, H.J. (1998c). Religious activity and depression among community-dwelling elderly persons with cancer: The Moderating effect of race. Journal of Gerontology, 53B, S218-S227. (prospective cohort study of probability sample of 3,007 (out of initial sample of 4,127) community-dwelling adults aged 65 or over who were assessed both at Wave I (1986) and Wave IV (1989) of the Duke EPESE study; religious attendance, religious media, and religious devotion were the three single-item measures of religiousness; depression assessed by CES-D (along with its four subscales); diagnosis of cancer identified by self-report of diagnosis by doctor (n=251 at Wave I); these were compared with person with other illness (n=1,770), and those with no illnesses (n=894) (patients with cancer diagnosed between Wave I and Wave IV were excluded to ensure "purity" of other illnesses group); other covariates included functional impairment (Rosow-Breslau activity scale), 2-item social interaction satisfaction scale, and demographics (sex, age, education, marital status); findings revealed that at Wave I, no differences in religious activity between cancer and non-cancer patients regardless of race; at Wave IV, Blacks with cancer were more likely to report an increase in religious devotion than either Blacks in the other illness (beta=-.25, p<.01) or no illness groups (beta=-.17, p=ns); same findings for religious media (beta-.20, p<.05, and beta=-.28, p<.01); the opposite, however, was found for service attendance (beta=.36, p<.001, and .47, p<.001); for whites, cancer patients were more likely to show an increase in religious media (-.13, p<.01, and -.13, p<.05); the relationships between religious activity and cancer were stronger for Blacks than for Whites for devotion and service attendance; among Blacks, but not Whites, religious service attendance Wave I (1986) predicts lower depressive symptoms (more positive affect, in particular) at Wave IV (1989), after controlling for Wave I depression and covariates (beta=.17, p<.01) among the 103 Black cancer patients who are still alive)
Musick, M. A., House, J. S., & Williams, D. R. (1999). Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. American Journal of Sociology, under review. (7.5 year prospective cohort study of a national sample of 3,617 persons aged 25 and over in United States in 1986; Americans Changing Lives Study ; persons attending religious services more then once a week were significantly less likely to die during the follow-up (hazard ratio 0.61 , p<.01); those attending religious services once a week were also less likely to die (hazard ratio 0.66, p<.05); analyses were controlled for socioeconomic status, health status (functional impairment, chronic health problems, self rated health), health behaviors (weight, physical activity, drinking, smoking), social integration (network size, confidence, social interaction, meeting attendance, subjective social support), other religious factors (volunteering for church, private religious activity, subjective religiosity), and beliefs (concerning justice, fatalism, rewards in afterlife). Effects were greatest among those under age 60 where > weekly attendance was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.13, p<.05, and attendance once a week was associated with a hazard ratio of.37, p .05).
Myers, D.G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy. Psychological Sciences, 6, 10-19. (random survey of 169,776 persons in 16 nations between 1980-86; religious involvement associated with higher well-being, optimism and positive expectations for the future - reviews literature; presents no new data from above survey; notes that Okun & Stock 1987 meta-analysis that among elderly the two best predictors of well-being are health and religiousness)
Myers, DG (2000). On assessing prayer, Faith, and health. Reformed Review, 53(2), 119-126
Myers, DG (2000). Is prayer clinically effective? Reformed Review, 53 (2), 95-102
Myers, DG (1997). Why people of faith can predict no effects in the Harvard prayer experiment. Unpublished paper, Hope College, Holland, Michigan.
Myers, DG (1995). Humility: theology meet psychology. Reformed Review, 48, 195-206. (All of these articles discuss why intercessory prayer studies should find no difference in the effects of intercessory prayer in double-blinded studies)